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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 _____________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
 _____________________________________________ 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                to                
Commission File Number 1-71
 _____________________________________________  
HEXION INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 _____________________________________________ 
 
 
 
 
New Jersey
 
13-0511250
(State of incorporation)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
180 East Broad St., Columbus, OH 43215
 
614-225-4000
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Registrant’s telephone number)
________________________ 
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
None
 
None
 _____________________
(Former name, former address and fiscal year, if changed since last report)
_______________________ 
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: NONE
 _____________________________________________ 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  o     No  x.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o    No  x.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  o.
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  o    Accelerated filer  o    Non-accelerated filer  x    Smaller reporting company  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  o    No  x.
At December 31, 2016, the aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity of the Registrant held by non-affiliates was zero.
Number of shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding as of the close of business on March 1, 2017: 82,556,847
Documents incorporated by reference. None


Table of Contents

HEXION INC.
INDEX
 
 
 
Page
PART I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Financial Statements of Hexion Inc.
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014
 
 
 
 
 
Financial Statement Schedules:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
 

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PART I
(dollars in millions)
Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
Certain statements in this report, including without limitation, certain statements made under Item 1, “Business,” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” are forward-looking statements within the meaning of and made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In addition, our management may from time to time make oral forward-looking statements. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “project,” “plan,” “estimate,” “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “seek” or “intend” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations and assumptions regarding our business, the economy and other future events and conditions and are based on currently available financial, economic and competitive data and our current business plans. Actual results could vary materially depending on risks and uncertainties that may affect our operations, markets, services, prices and other factors as discussed in the Risk Factors section of this report. While we believe our assumptions are reasonable, we caution you against relying on any forward-looking statements as it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, a weakening of global economic and financial conditions, interruptions in the supply of or increased cost of raw materials, the loss of, or difficulties with the further realization of, cost savings in connection with our strategic initiatives, including transactions with our affiliate, Momentive Performance Materials Inc., the impact of our substantial indebtedness, our failure to comply with financial covenants under our credit facilities or other debt, pricing actions by our competitors that could affect our operating margins, changes in governmental regulations and related compliance and litigation costs and the other factors listed in the Risk Factors section of this report. For a more detailed discussion of these and other risk factors, see the Risk Factors section in this report. All forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary notice. The forward-looking statements made by us speak only as of the date on which they are made. Factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may emerge from time to time. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as otherwise required by law.
ITEM 1 - BUSINESS
Overview
Hexion Inc. (“Hexion” or the “Company”), a New Jersey corporation with predecessors dating from 1899, is the world’s largest producer of thermosetting resins, or thermosets, and a leading producer of adhesive and structural resins and coatings. Thermosets are a critical ingredient in virtually all paints, coatings, glues and other adhesives produced for consumer or industrial uses. The type of thermoset used, and how it is formulated, applied and cured, determines its key attributes, such as durability, gloss, heat resistance, adhesion or strength of the final product. Thermosetting resins include materials such as phenolic resins, epoxy resins, polyester resins, acrylic resins and urethane resins.
Our direct parent is Hexion LLC, a holding company and wholly owned subsidiary of Hexion Holdings LLC (“Hexion Holdings”), the ultimate parent entity of Hexion. Hexion Holdings is controlled by investment funds managed by affiliates of Apollo Management Holdings, L.P. (together with Apollo Global Management, LLC and its subsidiaries, “Apollo”). Apollo may also be referred to as the Company’s owner.
Our business is organized based on the products we offer and the markets we serve. At December 31, 2016, we had two reportable segments: Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins and Forest Products Resins.
Products and Markets
We have a broad range of thermoset resin technologies, with high quality research, applications development and technical service capabilities. We provide a broad array of thermosets and associated technologies, and have significant market positions in each of the key markets that we serve.
Our products are used in thousands of applications and are sold into diverse markets, such as forest products, architectural and industrial paints, packaging, consumer products, composites and automotive coatings. Major industry sectors that we serve include industrial/marine, construction, consumer/durable goods, automotive, wind energy, aviation, electronics, architectural, civil engineering, repair/remodeling and oil and gas field support. The diversity of our products limits our dependence on any one market or end-use. We have a history of product innovation and success in introducing new products to new markets, as evidenced by more than 800 granted patents, the majority of which relate to the development of new products and manufacturing processes.
As of December 31, 2016, we had 55 active production sites around the world. Through our worldwide network of strategically located production facilities, we serve more than 4,200 customers in approximately 100 countries. Our position in certain additives, complementary materials and services further enables us to leverage our core thermoset technologies and provide our customers with a broad range of product solutions. As a result of our focus on innovation and a high level of technical service, we have cultivated long-standing customer relationships. Our global customers include leading companies in their respective industries, such as 3M, Akzo Nobel, BASF, Bayer, Dow, Louisiana Pacific, Monsanto, Owens Corning, PPG Industries, Valspar and Weyerhaeuser.

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Industry & Competitors
We are a large participant in the specialty chemicals industry. Thermosetting resins are generally considered specialty chemical products because they are sold primarily on the basis of performance, technical support, product innovation and customer service. However, as a result of the impact of the ongoing global economic volatility and overcapacity in certain markets, certain of our competitors have focused more on price to retain business and market share, which we have followed in certain markets to maintain market share and remain a market leader.
We compete with many companies in most of our product lines, including large global chemical companies and small specialty chemical companies. No single company competes with us across all of our segments and existing product lines. The principal competitive factors in our industry include technical service, breadth of product offerings, product innovation, product quality and price. Some of our competitors are larger and have greater financial resources, less debt and better access to the capital markets than we do. As a result, they may be better able to withstand adverse changes in industry conditions, including pricing, and the economy as a whole. As a result, our competitors may have more resources to support continued expansion than we do. Some of our competitors also have a greater range of products and may be more vertically integrated than we are within specific product lines or geographies.
We believe that the principal factors that contribute to success in the specialty chemicals market, and our ability to maintain our position in the markets we serve, are (i) consistent delivery of high-quality products; (ii) favorable process economics; (iii) the ability to provide value to customers through both product attributes and strong technical service and (iv) an international footprint and presence in growing and developing markets.
Our Businesses
The following is a discussion of our reportable segments, their corresponding major product lines and the primary end-use applications of our key products as of December 31, 2016.
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins Segment
2016 Net Sales: $2,094

Epoxy Specialty Resins
We are a leading producer of epoxy specialty resins, modifiers and curing agents in Europe and the United States with a global reach to our end markets, which include emerging regions such as China and Latin America. Epoxy resins are the fundamental component of many types of materials and are often used in the automotive, construction, wind energy, aerospace and electronics industries due to their superior adhesion, strength and durability. We internally consume approximately 30% of our liquid epoxy resin (“LER”) production in specialty composite, coating and adhesive applications, which ensures a consistent supply of our required intermediate materials. Our position in basic epoxy resins, along with our technology and service expertise, has enabled us to offer formulated specialty products in certain markets. In composites, our specialty epoxy products are used either as replacements for traditional materials such as metal, wood and ceramics, or in applications where traditional materials do not meet demanding engineering specifications.
We are a leading producer of resins that are used in fiber reinforced composites. Composites are a fast growing class of materials that are used in a wide variety of applications ranging from aircraft components and wind turbine blades to sports equipment, and increasingly in automotive and transportation. We supply epoxy resin systems to composite fabricators in the wind energy, automotive and pipe markets.
Epoxy specialty resins are also used for a variety of high-end coating applications that require the superior adhesion, corrosion resistance and durability of epoxy, such as protective coatings for industrial flooring, pipe, marine and construction applications and automotive coatings. Epoxy-based surface coatings are among the most widely used industrial coatings due to their long service life and broad application functionality combined with overall economic efficiency. We also leverage our resin and additives position to supply custom resins to specialty coatings formulators.
Products
  
Key Applications
Adhesive Applications:
  
 
Civil Engineering
  
Building and bridge construction, concrete enhancement and corrosion protection
 
 
Adhesives
  
Automotive: hem flange adhesives and panel reinforcements
 
 
 
  
Construction: ceramic tiles, chemical dowels and marble
 
 
 
  
Aerospace: metal and composite laminates
 
 
 
  
Electronics: chip adhesives and solder masks
Electrical Applications:
  
 
Electronic Resins
  
Unclad sheets, paper impregnation and electrical laminates for printed circuit boards
 
 
 
Electrical Castings
  
Generators and bushings, transformers, medium and high-voltage switch gear components, post insulators, capacitors and automotive ignition coils

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Principal Competitors: Olin, Nan Ya, Huntsman, Spolchemie, Leuna Harze and Aditya Birla (Thai Epoxy)
Products
  
Key Applications
Composites:
  
 
Composite Epoxy Resins
  
Pipes and tanks, automotive, sports (ski, snowboard, golf), boats, construction, aerospace, wind energy and industrial applications
Principal Competitors: Olin, Cytec-Solvay Group, BASF, Aditya Birla (Thai Epoxy), Gurit, Huntsman and Swancor
Products
  
Key Applications
Coating Applications:
  
 
Floor Coatings (LER, Solutions, Performance Products)
  
Chemically resistant, antistatic and heavy duty flooring used in hospitals, the chemical industry, electronics workshops, retail areas and warehouses
 
 
Ambient Cured Coatings (LER, Solid Epoxy Resin (“SER”) Solutions, Performance Products)
  
Marine (manufacturing and maintenance), shipping containers and large steel structures (such as bridges, pipes, plants and offshore equipment)
 
 
Waterborne Coatings (EPI-REZTM Epoxy Waterborne Resins)
  
Substitutes of solvent-borne products in both heat cured and ambient cured applications
Principal Competitors: Olin, Huntsman, Nan Ya, Air Products and Cytec-Solvay Group
Basic Epoxy Resins and Intermediates
We are one of the world’s largest suppliers of basic epoxy resins, such as solid epoxy resin (“SER”) and LER. These base epoxies are used in a wide variety of industrial coatings applications. In addition, we are a major producer of bisphenol-A (“BPA”) and epichlorohydrin (“ECH”), key precursors in the downstream manufacture of basic epoxy resins and epoxy specialty resins. We internally consume the majority of our BPA, and all of our ECH, which ensures a consistent supply of our required intermediate materials.
Products
  
Key Applications
Electrocoat (LER, SER, BPA)
  
Automotive, general industry and white goods (such as appliances)
 
 
Powder Coatings (SER, Performance Products)
  
White goods, pipes for oil and gas transportation, general industry (such as heating radiators) and automotive (interior parts and small components)
 
 
Heat Cured Coatings (LER, SER)
  
Metal packaging and coil-coated steel for construction and general industry
Principal Competitors: Olin, Huntsman, Nan Ya and the Formosa Plastics Group, Leuna, Kukdo and other Korean producers
Versatic Acids and Derivatives
We are the world’s largest producer of Versatic acids and derivatives. Versatic acids and derivatives are specialty monomers that provide significant performance advantages for finished coatings, including superior adhesion, hydrolytic stability, water resistance, appearance and ease of application. Our products include basic Versatic acids and derivatives sold under the Versatic™, VEOVA™ vinyl ester and CARDURA™ glycidyl ester names. Applications for these specialty monomers include decorative, automotive and protective coatings, as well as other uses, such as adhesives and intermediates.
Products
  
Key Applications
CARDURA™ glycidyl ester
  
Automotive repair/refinishing, automotive original equipment manufacturing (“OEM”) and industrial coatings
 
 
Versatic™ Acids
  
Chemical intermediates (e.g., for peroxides, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals) and adhesion promoters (e.g., for tires)
 
 
VEOVAvinyl ester
  
Architectural coatings, construction and adhesives
Principal Competitors: ExxonMobil and Hebei Shield Excellence Technology

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Phenolic Specialty Resins and Molding Compounds
We are one of the leading producers of phenolic specialty resins, which are used in applications that require extreme heat resistance and strength, such as after-market automotive and OEM truck brake pads, filtration, aircraft components and foundry resins. These products are sold under globally recognized brand names such as BORDEN, BAKELITE, DURITE and CELLOBOND. Our phenolic specialty resins are known for their binding qualities and are used widely in the production of mineral wool and glass wool used for commercial and domestic insulation applications.
We have expanded our phenolic specialty resins business in select regions where we believe there are prospects for strong long-term growth. In the second half of 2015, we acquired the remaining 50% interest in a joint venture that constructed a phenolic specialty resins manufacturing facility in China. This facility produces a full range of specialty novolac and resole phenolic resins used in a diverse range of applications, including refractories, friction and abrasives to support the growing auto and consumer markets in China, as well as exports.
Products
  
Key Applications
Phenolic Specialty Resins:
  
 
Composites and Electronic Resins
  
Aircraft & rail components, ballistic applications, industrial grating, pipe, jet engine components, computer chip encasement and photolithography
 
 
Automotive Phenol Formaldehyde Resins
  
Acoustical insulation, engine filters, brakes, friction materials, interior components, molded electrical parts and assemblies
 
 
Construction Phenol Formaldehyde Resins and Urea Formaldehyde Resins
  
Fiberglass insulation, floral foam, insulating foam, lamp cement for light bulbs, molded appliance and electrical parts, molding compounds, sandpaper, fiberglass mat and coatings
 
 
Molding Compounds:
  
 
Phenolic, Epoxy, Unsaturated Polyesters
  
High performance automotive transmissions and under-hood components, heat resistant knobs and bases, switches and breaker components, pot handles and ashtrays
 
 
 
Glass
  
High load, dimensionally stable automotive underhood parts and commutators
Principal Competitors: Sumitomo (Durez), SI Group, Plenco, Dynea International, Arclin, Georgia-Pacific and Shenquan
Phenolic Encapsulated Substrates

We are a leading producer of phenolic resin encapsulated sand and ceramic substrates that are used in oil field applications. Our highly specialized compounds and resins are designed to perform well under extreme conditions, such as intense heat, high-closure stress and corrosive environments, that characterize oil and gas drilling. Our resin encapsulated proppants are also used to enhance oil and gas recovery rates and extend well life.
Products
  
Key Applications
Oil & Gas Stimulation Services Applications:
  
 
Resin Encapsulated Proppants
  
Oil and gas fracturing
Principal Competitors: Carbo Ceramics, Santrol, Preferred Sands, Patriot Proppants and Atlas Resins
Forest Products Resins Segment
2016 Net Sales: $1,344
Formaldehyde Based Resins and Intermediates
We are the leading producer of formaldehyde-based resins for the North American forest products industry, and also hold significant positions in Europe, Latin America, Australia and New Zealand. Formaldehyde-based resins, also known as forest products resins, are a key adhesive and binding ingredient used in the production of a wide variety of engineered lumber products, including medium-density fiberboard (“MDF”), particleboard, oriented strand board (“OSB”) and various types of plywood and laminated veneer lumber (“LVL”). These products are used in a wide range of applications in the construction, remodeling and furniture industries. Forest products resins have relatively short shelf lives, and as such, our manufacturing facilities are strategically located in close proximity to our customers.
In addition, we are a significant producer of formaldehyde, a key raw material used to manufacture thousands of other chemicals and products, including the manufacture of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (“MDI”) and butanediol (“BDO”). Nearly all of our formaldehyde requirements for the production of forest products resins are provided by internal production, giving us a competitive advantage versus our non-integrated competitors.

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In the second half of 2015, we completed the expansion of our forest products resins manufacturing capacity in Brazil and the construction of a new formaldehyde plant in North America. In addition, we finalized construction of an additional formaldehyde plant in North America in early 2016. This added capacity has enhanced our ability to leverage the expected long-term growth in these regions.
Products
  
Key Applications
Forest Products Resins:
 
 
Engineered Wood Resins
  
Softwood and hardwood plywood, OSB, LVL, particleboard, MDF and decorative laminates
 
 
Specialty Wood Adhesives
  
Laminated beams, structural and nonstructural fingerjoints, wood composite I-beams, cabinets, doors, windows, furniture, molding and millwork and paper laminations
 
 
Wax Emulsions
  
Moisture resistance for panel boards and other specialty applications
 
 
 
Formaldehyde Applications:
  
 
Formaldehyde
  
MDI, BDO, herbicides and fungicides, scavengers for oil and gas production, fabric softeners, urea formaldehyde resins, phenol formaldehyde resins, melamine formaldehyde resins, hexamine and other catalysts
Principal Competitors: Arclin, Georgia-Pacific, Huntsman, BASF, Covestro and DB Western Inc.
For additional information about our segments, see Note 16 to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Marketing, Customers and Seasonality
Our products are sold to industrial users worldwide through a combination of a direct sales force that services our larger customers and third-party distributors that more cost-effectively serve our smaller customers. Our customer service and support network is made up of key regional customer service centers. We have global account teams that serve the major needs of our global customers for technical service and supply and commercial term requirements. Where operating and regulatory factors vary from country to country, these functions are managed locally.
In 2016, our largest customer accounted for approximately 2% of our net sales, and our top ten customers accounted for approximately 13% of our net sales. Neither our overall business nor any of our reporting segments depends on any single customer or a particular group of customers; therefore, the loss of any single customer would not have a material adverse effect on either of our two reporting segments or the Company as a whole. Our primary customers are manufacturers, and the demand for our products is seasonal in certain of our businesses, with the highest demand in the summer months and lowest in the winter months. Therefore, the dollar amount of our backlog orders as of December 31, 2016 is not significant. Demand for our products can also be cyclical, as general economic health and industrial and commercial production levels are key drivers for our business.
International Operations
Our non-U.S. operations accounted for 60%, 60% and 57% of our sales in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. While our international operations may be subject to a number of additional risks, such as exposure to foreign currency exchange risk, we do not believe that our foreign operations, on the whole, carry significantly greater risk than our operations in the United States. We plan to grow our business in the Asia-Pacific, European and Latin American markets, where the use of our products is increasing. Information about sales by geographic region for the past three years and long-lived assets by geographic region for the past two years can be found in Note 16 in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. More information about our methods and actions to manage exchange risk and interest rate risk can be found in Item 7A of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Raw Materials
Raw material costs accounted for approximately 70% of our cost of sales in 2016. In 2016, we purchased approximately $2.1 billion of raw materials. The three largest raw materials that we use are phenol, methanol and urea, which collectively represented approximately 40% of our total raw material expenditures in 2016. The majority of raw materials that we use to manufacture our products are available from more than one source, and are readily available in the open market. We have long-term purchase agreements for certain raw materials that ensure the availability of adequate supply. These agreements generally have periodic price adjustment mechanisms and do not have minimum annual purchase requirements. Smaller quantity materials that are single sourced generally have long-term supply contracts to maximize supply reliability. Prices for our main feedstocks are generally driven by underlying petrochemical benchmark prices and energy costs, which are subject to price fluctuations. Although we seek to offset increases in raw material prices with increases in our product prices, we may not always be able to do so, and there are periods when price increases lag behind raw material price increases.

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 Research and Development
Our research and development activities are geared to developing and enhancing products, processes and application technologies so that we can maintain our position as the world’s largest producer of thermosetting resins. We focus on:
 
developing new or improved applications based on our existing product lines and identified market trends;
 
developing new resin products and applications for customers to improve their competitive advantage and profitability;
 
providing premier technical service for customers of specialty products;
 
providing technical support for manufacturing locations and assisting in optimizing our manufacturing processes;
 
ensuring that our products are manufactured consistent with our global environmental, health and safety policies and objectives;
 
developing lower cost manufacturing processes globally; and
 
expanding our production capacity.
We have over 350 scientists and technicians worldwide. Our research and development facilities include a broad range of synthesis, testing and formulating equipment and small-scale versions of customer manufacturing processes for applications development and demonstration.
More recently, we have focused research and development resources on the incorporation of green chemistry principles into technology innovations to remain competitive and to address our customers’ demands for more environmentally preferred solutions. Our efforts have focused on developing resin technologies that reduce emissions, maximize efficiency and increase the use of bio-based raw materials. Some examples of meaningful results of our investment in the development of green products include:
 
EPIKOTE™ / EPIKURE™ epoxy systems for wind energy applications, which provide superior mechanical and process properties, reducing air emissions when hours of energy are created;

EPIKOTE™ and Bakelite® resin systems for automotive applications, which produce lightweight automotive composite components and other automotive parts that allow customers to build cars with better mileage, reducing air emissions without sacrificing performance;

EcoBind™ Resin Technology, an ultra low-emitting binder resin used to produce engineered wood products; and
 
Epi-Rez™ Epoxy Waterborne Resins, which provide for lower volatile organic compounds, reducing air emissions.
 In 2016, 2015 and 2014, our research and development and technical services expense was $59, $65 and $72, respectively ($3, $6 and $6, respectively, of these expenses relate to divested businesses). We take a customer-driven approach to discover new applications and processes and provide customer service through our technical staff. Through regular direct contact with our key customers, our research and development associates can become aware of evolving customer needs in advance, and can anticipate their requirements to more effectively plan customer programs. We also focus on continuous improvement of plant yields and production capacity and reduction of fixed costs.
Intellectual Property
As of December 31, 2016, we own, license or have rights to over 800 granted patents and over 1,200 registered trademarks, as well as various patent and trademark applications and technology licenses around the world, which we currently use or hold for use in our operations. A majority of our patents relate to developing new products and processes for manufacturing and will expire between 2017 and 2034. We renew our trademarks on a regular basis. While we view our patents and trademarks to be valuable, because of the broad scope of our products and services, we do not believe that the loss or expiration of any single patent or trademark would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or the continuation of our business.
Industry Regulatory Matters
Domestic and international laws regulate the production and marketing of chemical substances. Almost every country has its own legal procedures for registration and import. Of these, the laws and regulations in the European Union, the United States (Toxic Substances Control Act) and China are the most significant to our business. Additionally, other laws and regulations may also limit our expansion into other countries. Chemicals that are not included on one or more of these, or any other country’s chemical inventory lists, can usually be registered and imported, but may first require additional testing or submission of additional administrative information.
The European Commission enacted a regulatory system in 2006, known as Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (“REACH”), which requires manufacturers, importers and consumers of certain chemicals to register these chemicals and evaluate their potential impact on human health and the environment. As REACH matures, significant market restrictions could be imposed on the current and future uses of chemical products that we use as raw materials or that we sell as finished products in the European Union. Other countries may also enact similar regulations.

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Environmental Regulations
Our policy is to operate our plants in a manner that protects the environment and health and safety of our employees, customers and communities. We have implemented company-wide environmental, health and safety policies managed by our Environmental, Health and Safety (“EH&S”) department and overseen by the EH&S Committee of Hexion Holdings’ Board of Managers. Our EH&S department provides support and oversight to our operations worldwide to ensure compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. This responsibility is executed via training, communication of EH&S policies, formulation of relevant policies and standards, EH&S audits and incident response planning and implementation. Our EH&S policies include systems and procedures that govern environmental emissions, waste generation, process safety management, handling, storage and disposal of hazardous substances, worker health and safety requirements, site security, emergency planning and response and product stewardship.
Our operations involve the use, handling, processing, storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials, and we are subject to extensive environmental regulation at the federal, state and international levels. We are also exposed to the risk of claims for environmental remediation or restoration. Our production facilities require operating permits that are subject to renewal or modification. Violations of environmental laws or permits may result in restrictions being imposed on operating activities, substantial fines, penalties, damages or other costs. In addition, statutes such as the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and comparable state and foreign laws impose strict, joint and several liability for investigating and remediating the consequences of spills and other releases of hazardous materials, substances and wastes at current and former facilities, as well as third-party disposal sites. Other laws permit individuals to seek recovery of damages for alleged personal injury or property damage due to exposure to hazardous substances and conditions at our facilities or to hazardous substances otherwise owned, sold or controlled by us. Therefore, notwithstanding our commitment to environmental management and environmental health and safety, we may incur liabilities in the future, and these liabilities may result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Although our environmental policies and practices are designed to ensure compliance with international, federal and state laws and environmental regulations, future developments and increasingly stringent regulation could require us to make additional unforeseen environmental expenditures. In addition, our former operations, including our ink, wallcoverings, film, phosphate mining and processing, thermoplastics and food and dairy operations, may give rise to claims relating to our period of ownership.

We expect to incur future costs for capital improvements and general compliance under environmental, health and safety laws, including costs to acquire, maintain and repair pollution control equipment. In 2016, we incurred related capital expenditures of $23. We estimate that capital expenditures in 2017 for environmental controls at our facilities will be between $20 and $25. This estimate is based on current regulations and other requirements, but it is possible that a material amount of capital expenditures, in addition to those we currently anticipate, could be necessary if these regulations or other requirements or other facts change.
Employees
At December 31, 2016, we had approximately 4,300 employees. Approximately 37% of our employees are members of a labor union or are represented by workers’ councils that have collective bargaining agreements, including most of our European employees. We believe that we have good relations with our union and non-union employees.
Our Board of Directors and sole shareholder expect honest and ethical conduct from every employee. We strive to adhere to the highest ethical standards in the conduct of our business and to comply with all laws and regulations that are applicable to the business. Each employee has a responsibility to maintain and advance the ethical values of the Company. In support of this, our employees receive training to emphasize the importance of compliance with our Code of Business Ethics.
Where You Can Find More Information
The public may read and copy any materials that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NW, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information about the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports are available free of charge to the public through our internet website at www.hexion.com under “Investor Relations - SEC Filings” or on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
ITEM 1A - RISK FACTORS
Following are our principal risks. These factors may or may not occur, and we cannot express a view on the likelihood that any of these may occur. Other factors may exist that we do not consider significant based on information that is currently available or that we are not currently able to anticipate. Any of the following risks could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and prospects.

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Risks Related to Our Business
If global economic conditions are weak or deteriorate, it will negatively impact our business operations, results of operations and financial condition.
Global economic and financial market conditions, including severe market disruptions like in late 2008 and 2009 and the potential for a significant and prolonged global economic downturn, have impacted or could continue to impact our business operations in a number of ways including, but not limited to, the following:
reduced demand in key customer segments, such as oil and gas, automotive, building, construction and electronics, compared to prior years;
payment delays by customers and reduced demand for our products caused by customer insolvencies and/or the inability of customers to obtain adequate financing to maintain operations. This situation could cause customers to terminate existing purchase orders and reduce the volume of products they purchase from us and further impact our customers’ ability to pay our receivables, requiring us to assume additional credit risk related to these receivables or limit our ability to collect receivables from that customer;
insolvency of suppliers or the failure of suppliers to meet their commitments resulting in product delays;
more onerous credit and commercial terms from our suppliers such as shortening the required payment period for outstanding accounts receivable or reducing or eliminating the amount of trade credit available to us; and
potential delays in accessing our senior secured asset based revolving credit facility (the “ABL Facility”) or obtaining new credit facilities on terms we deem commercially reasonable or at all, and the potential inability of one or more of the financial institutions included in our syndicated ABL Facility to fulfill their funding obligations. Should a bank in our syndicated ABL Facility be unable to fund a future draw request, we could find it difficult to replace that bank in the facility.
Global economic conditions may remain volatile or deteriorate. Any weakening of economic conditions would likely exacerbate the negative effects described above, could significantly affect our liquidity which may cause us to defer needed capital expenditures, reduce research and development or other spending, defer costs to achieve productivity and synergy programs or sell assets or incur additional borrowings which may not be available or may only be available on terms significantly less advantageous than our current credit terms and could result in a wide-ranging and prolonged impact on general business conditions, thereby negatively impacting our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, if the global economic environment deteriorates or remains slow for an extended period of time, the fair value of our reporting units could be more adversely affected than we estimated in our analysis of reporting unit fair values at October 1, 2016. This could result in additional goodwill or other asset impairments, which could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Due to continued worldwide economic volatility and uncertainty, the short-term outlook for our business is difficult to predict. Although certain global markets have improved, a continued or increasing lack of consumer confidence could lead to stagnant demand for many of our products within both of our reportable segments into 2017.
Fluctuations in direct or indirect raw material costs could have an adverse impact on our business.
Raw materials costs made up approximately 70% of our cost of sales in 2016. The prices of our direct and indirect raw materials have been, and we expect them to continue to be, volatile. If the cost of direct or indirect raw materials increases significantly and we are unable to offset the increased costs with higher selling prices, our profitability will decline. Increases in prices for our products could also hurt our ability to remain both competitive and profitable in the markets in which we compete.
Although some of our materials contracts include competitive price clauses that allow us to buy outside the contract if market pricing falls below contract pricing, and certain contracts have minimum-maximum monthly volume commitments that allow us to take advantage of spot pricing, we may be unable to purchase raw materials at market prices. In addition, some of our customer contracts have fixed prices for a certain term, and as a result, we may not be able to pass on raw material price increases to our customers immediately, if at all. Due to differences in timing of the pricing trigger points between our sales and purchase contracts, there is often a “lead-lag” impact. In many cases this “lead-lag” impact can negatively impact our margins in the short term in periods of rising raw material prices and positively impact them in the short term in periods of falling raw material prices. Future raw material prices may be impacted by new laws or regulations, suppliers’ allocations to other purchasers, changes in our supplier manufacturing processes as some of our products are byproducts of these processes, interruptions in production by suppliers, natural disasters, volatility in the price of crude oil and related petrochemical products and changes in exchange rates.
An inadequate supply of direct or indirect raw materials and intermediate products could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our manufacturing operations require adequate supplies of raw materials and intermediate products on a timely basis. The loss of a key source or a delay in shipments could have a material adverse effect on our business. Raw material availability may be subject to curtailment or change due to, among other things:
new or existing laws or regulations;
suppliers’ allocations to other purchasers;
interruptions in production by suppliers; and
natural disasters.

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Many of our raw materials and intermediate products are available in the quantities we require from a limited number of suppliers. Should any of our key suppliers fail to deliver these raw materials or intermediate products to us or no longer supply us, we may be unable to purchase these materials in necessary quantities, which could adversely affect our volumes, or may not be able to purchase them at prices that would allow us to remain competitive. During the past several years, certain of our suppliers have experienced force majeure events rendering them unable to deliver all, or a portion of, the contracted-for raw materials. On these occasions, we have been forced to limit production or were forced to purchase replacement raw materials in the open market at significantly higher costs or place our customers on an allocation of our products. In the past, some of our customers have chosen to discontinue or decrease the use of our products as a result of these measures. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, force majeure events by certain of our suppliers which have had significant negative impacts on our business. For example, in 2014, Shell notified us of a supply interruption event at its Moerdijk, Netherlands facility, which provides key raw materials to us, and this event resulted in us allocating certain products to our customers through mid-2015, at which point the disruption was resolved. In addition, we cannot predict whether new regulations or restrictions may be imposed in the future which may result in reduced supply or further increases in prices. We cannot assure investors that we will be able to renew our current materials contracts or enter into replacement contracts on commercially acceptable terms, or at all. Fluctuations in the price of these or other raw materials or intermediate products, the loss of a key source of supply or any delay in the supply could result in a material adverse effect on our business.
Our production facilities are subject to significant operating hazards which could cause environmental contamination, personal injury and loss of life, and severe damage to, or destruction of, property and equipment.
Our production facilities are subject to hazards associated with the manufacturing, handling, storage and transportation of chemical materials and products, including human exposure to hazardous substances, pipeline and equipment leaks and ruptures, explosions, fires, inclement weather and natural disasters, mechanical failures, unscheduled downtime, transportation interruptions, remedial complications, chemical spills, discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases, storage tank leaks and other environmental risks. Additionally, a number of our operations are adjacent to operations of independent entities that engage in hazardous and potentially dangerous activities. Our operations or adjacent operations could result in personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property or equipment, environmental damage, or a loss of the use of all or a portion of one of our key manufacturing facilities. Such events at our facilities, or adjacent third-party facilities, could have a material adverse effect on us.
We may incur losses beyond the limits or coverage of our insurance policies for liabilities that are associated with these hazards. In addition, various kinds of insurance for companies in the chemical industry have not been available on commercially acceptable terms, or, in some cases, have been unavailable altogether. In the future, we may not be able to obtain coverage at current levels, and our premiums may increase significantly on coverage that we maintain.
Environmental obligations and liabilities could have a substantial negative impact on our financial condition, cash flows and profitability.
Our operations involve the use, handling, processing, storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials and are subject to extensive and complex U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. supranational, national, provincial, and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These environmental laws and regulations include those that govern the discharge of pollutants into the air and water, the generation, use, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, the cleanup of contaminated sites, occupational health and safety and those requiring permits, licenses, or other government approvals for specified operations or activities. Our products are also subject to a variety of international, national, regional, state, and provincial requirements and restrictions applicable to the manufacture, import, export or subsequent use of such products. In addition, we are required to maintain, and may be required to obtain in the future, environmental, health and safety permits, licenses, or government approvals to continue current operations at most of our manufacturing and research facilities throughout the world.
Compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, and maintenance of permits, can be costly and complex, and we have incurred and will continue to incur costs, including capital expenditures and costs associated with the issuance and maintenance of letters of credit, to comply with these requirements. In 2016, we incurred capital expenditures of $23 to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and to make other environmental improvements. If we are unable to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, or maintain our permits, we could incur substantial costs, including fines and civil or criminal sanctions, third party property damage or personal injury claims or costs associated with upgrades to our facilities or changes in our manufacturing processes in order to achieve and maintain compliance, and may also be required to halt permitted activities or operations until any necessary permits can be obtained or complied with. In addition, future developments or increasingly stringent regulations could require us to make additional unforeseen environmental expenditures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Environmental, health and safety requirements change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. We cannot predict what environmental, health and safety laws and regulations or permit requirements will be enacted or amended in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be interpreted or enforced or the impact of such laws, regulations or permits on future production expenditures, supply chain or sales. Our costs of compliance with current and future environmental, health and safety requirements could be material. Such future requirements include legislation designed to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other substances associated with climate change (“greenhouse gases”). The European Union has enacted greenhouse gas emissions legislation and continues to expand the scope of such legislation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “USEPA”) has promulgated regulations applicable to projects involving greenhouse gas emissions above a certain threshold, and the United States and certain states within the United States have enacted, or are considering, limitations on greenhouse gas emissions. These requirements to limit greenhouse gas emissions could significantly increase our energy costs, and may also require us to incur material capital costs to modify our manufacturing facilities.


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In addition, we are subject to liability associated with hazardous substances in soil, groundwater and elsewhere at a number of sites. These include sites that we formerly owned or operated and sites where hazardous wastes and other substances from our current and former facilities and operations have been sent, treated, stored, or recycled or disposed of, as well as sites that we currently own or operate. Depending upon the circumstances, our liability may be strict, joint and several, meaning that we may be held responsible for more than our proportionate share, or even all, of the liability involved regardless of our fault or whether we are aware of the conditions giving rise to the liability. Environmental conditions at these sites can lead to environmental cleanup liability and claims against us for personal injury or wrongful death, property damages and natural resource damages, as well as to claims and obligations for the investigation and cleanup of environmental conditions. The extent of any of these liabilities is difficult to predict, but in the aggregate such liabilities could be material.
We have been notified that we are or may be responsible for environmental remediation at a number of sites in North America, Europe and South America. We are also performing a number of voluntary cleanups. The most significant sites at which we are performing or participating in environmental remediation are sites formerly owned by us in Geismar, Louisiana and Plant City, Florida. As the result of former, current or future operations, there may be additional environmental remediation or restoration liabilities or claims of personal injury by employees or members of the public due to exposure or alleged exposure to hazardous materials in connection with our operations, properties or products. Sites sold by us in past years may have significant site closure or remediation costs and our share, if any, may be unknown to us at this time. These environmental liabilities or obligations, or any that may arise or become known to us in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flows and profitability.
Future chemical regulatory actions may decrease our profitability.
Several governmental agencies have enacted, are considering or may consider in the future, regulations that may impact our ability to sell certain chemical products in certain geographic areas. In December 2006, the European Union enacted a regulation known as REACH, which stands for Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals. This regulation requires manufacturers, importers and consumers of certain chemicals manufactured in, or imported into, the European Union to register such chemicals and evaluate their potential impacts on human health and the environment. The implementing agency is currently in the process of determining if any chemicals should be further tested, regulated, restricted or banned from use in the European Union. In addition, the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act (“LCSA”) was signed into law on June 22, 2016, and updates and revises the Toxic Substances Control Act. LCSA requires the implementing agency to conduct risk evaluations on high priority chemicals, which could include chemical products we manufacture. Other countries have implemented, or are considering implementation of, similar chemical regulatory programs. When fully implemented, REACH, LCSA and other similar regulatory programs may result in significant adverse market impacts on the affected chemical products. If we fail to comply with REACH, LCSA or other similar laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties or other enforcement actions, including fines, injunctions, recalls or seizures, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flows and profitability.
We participate with other companies in trade associations and regularly contribute to the research and study of the safety and environmental impact of our products and raw materials, including silica, formaldehyde and Bis-phenol A (“BPA”). These programs are part of a process to review the environmental impacts, safety and efficacy of our products. In addition, government and academic institutions periodically conduct research on potential environmental and health concerns posed by various chemical substances, including substances we manufacture and sell. These research results are periodically reviewed by state, national and international regulatory agencies and potential customers. Such research could result in future regulations restricting the manufacture or use of our products, liability for adverse environmental or health effects linked to our products, and/or de-selection of our products for specific applications. These restrictions, liability, and product de-selection could have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial condition and/or liquidity.
Because of certain government public health agencies’ concerns regarding the potential for adverse human health effects, formaldehyde is a regulated chemical and public health agencies continue to evaluate its safety. In 2004, a division of the World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, or IARC, based on an alleged stronger relationship with nasopharyngeal cancer (“NPC”), reclassified formaldehyde as “carcinogenic to humans,” a higher classification than set forth in previous IARC evaluations. In 2009, the IARC determined that there is sufficient evidence in humans of a causal association between formaldehyde exposure and leukemia. In 2011, the National Toxicology Program, or NTP, within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, issued its 12th Report on Carcinogens, or RoC, which lists formaldehyde as “known to be a human carcinogen.” This NTP listing was based, in part, upon certain studies reporting an increased risk of certain types of cancers, including myeloid leukemia, in individuals with higher measures of formaldehyde exposure (exposure level or duration). In December 2016, the USEPA issued its final rule on formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products that follows the 2010 Congressional legislative mandate to ensure a global level playing field for acceptance of composite wood products. Hexion’s formaldehyde technology platform is well suited to help our customers meet the regulatory requirements. The USEPA, under its Integrated Risk Information System, or IRIS, released a draft of its toxicological review of formaldehyde in 2010. This draft review states that formaldehyde meets the criteria to be described as “carcinogenic to humans” by the inhalation route of exposure based upon evidence of causal links to certain cancers, including leukemia. The National Academy of Sciences, or NAS, was requested by the the USEPA to serve as the external peer review body for the draft review. The NAS reviewed the draft IRIS toxicological review and issued a report in April 2011 that criticized the draft IRIS toxicological review and stated that the methodologies and the underlying science used in the draft IRIS review did not clearly support a conclusion of a causal link between formaldehyde exposure and leukemia. It is possible that USEPA may revise its draft IRIS toxicological review to reflect the NAS findings, including the conclusions regarding a causal link between formaldehyde exposure and leukemia. The USEPA has not yet issued a revised updated draft assessment for public review and comment. In December 2011, the conference report for the FY 2012 Omnibus Appropriations bill included a provision directing HHS to refer the NTP 12th RoC file for formaldehyde to the NAS for further review. On August 8, 2014 the NAS accepted the listing of formaldehyde as a “known human carcinogen” in the 12th RoC, with no changes recommended. According to NTP, a listing in the RoC indicates a potential hazard and does not assess cancer risks to individuals associated with exposures in their daily lives. However, the 12th RoC listing could have material adverse effects on our business. In October 2011, the European Chemical Agency (“ECHA”) publicly released for comment the “Proposal for Harmonized Classification and Labelling Based on Regulation (EC) No

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1272/2008 (C.I.P. Regulation), Annex VI, Part 2, Substance Name: FORMALDEHYDE Version Number 2, Date: 28 September 2011.” The French Member State Competent Authorities proposed that formaldehyde be reclassified as a Category 1A Carcinogen and Category 2 Mutagen based upon their review of the available evidence. The proposal cited a relationship to NPC. NPC is a rare cancer of the upper respiratory tract. Following a review of the proposal, the Risk Assessment Committee of ECHA, which is made up of representatives from all EU member states, determined that there was sufficient evidence to justify the classification of formaldehyde as a Category 2 Mutagen, but that the evidence reviewed only supported the classification of formaldehyde as a Category 1B Carcinogen (described by the applicable EU regulation as “presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans, classification is largely based on animal evidence”) rather than as a Category 1A Carcinogen (described as “known to have carcinogenic potential for humans, classification is largely based on human evidence”) as proposed by France. This new classification became effective on January 1, 2016. It is possible that new regulatory requirements could be promulgated to limit human exposure to formaldehyde, that we could incur substantial additional costs to meet any such regulatory requirements, and that there could be a reduction in demand for our formaldehyde-based products. These additional costs and reduced demand could have a material adverse effect on our operations and profitability.
BPA, which is manufactured and used as an intermediate at our Deer Park, Texas and Pernis, Netherlands manufacturing facilities, and is also sold directly to third parties, is currently under evaluation as an “endocrine disrupter.” Endocrine disrupters are chemicals that have been alleged to interact with the endocrine systems of human beings and wildlife and disrupt their normal biological processes. BPA continues to be subject to scientific, regulatory and legislative review and negative media attention. Several significant reviews on the safety of BPA were performed by prestigious regulatory and scientific bodies around the globe. These include the World Health Organization, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), European Food Safety Authority (“EFSA”), Japanese Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, The German Society of Toxicology and Health Canada. In January 2013, the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (“OEHHA”) issued a notice of intent to list BPA under Proposition 65 as a developmental toxicant. If listed, manufacturers, dealers, distributors and retailers of products containing BPA would be required to warn individuals prior to exposing them to BPA unless such exposures were shown to be less than a risk-based level (the maximum allowable dose level (“MADL”)). Concurrent with its proposed listing, the OEHHA proposed establishing an MADL for BPA. The American Chemistry Council (“ACC”) has filed a lawsuit to challenge this proposed listing. On April 19, 2013, a California state court issued a preliminary injunction ordering OEHHA to remove BPA from the Proposition 65 list during the pendency of the lawsuit. OEHHA subsequently removed the listing and withdrew its MADL for BPA. On December 18, 2014, the California state court issued a ruling denying ACC’s petition to prevent to listing of BPA under Proposition 65. ACC appealed this decision and the California Court of Appeals issued a stay of OEHHA’s listing of BPA until further order of the Court. On May 7, 2015, OEHHA’s Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Identification Committee voted to list BPA under Proposition 65 as a reproductive toxicant. OEHHA subsequently established a dermal exposure MADL of 3 ug/day. As of May 11, 2016, products containing BPA sold into California must comply with Proposition 65’s requirements. As a result, and as part of the Company’s November 2015 settlement of an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) enforcement action under OSHA’s hazard communication standard, the Company’s Safety Data Sheets (SDS) have been changed to reflect the required OSHA Global Harmonized System (GHS) classification of BPA as a Category 2 reproductive toxicant and the California Proposition 65 listing. Despite these hazard designations and listings, the FDA, as noted above, is also actively engaged in the scientific and regulatory review of BPA and, in a letter submitted to OEHHA dated April 6, 2015, has reaffirmed that BPA is safe as currently permitted in FDA-regulated food contact uses and concluded that FDA’s National Center for Toxicological Research study did not support the listing of BPA as a reproductive toxicant. In December 2012, France enacted a law that bans BPA in Food Containers by 2015. Per this new law, the production, import, export, and marketing of food packaging containing BPA in direct contact with food contents was banned as of January 1, 2013 for products intended for infants less than 3 years of age, and as of January 1, 2015 for all other consumer products. However, the French Constitutional Court in September 2015 ruled that banning the manufacture and export of BPA-based food contact materials was unconstitutional. In December 2016, the French Conseil d’Etat (Supreme Administrative Court) found that the French ban did not violate EU law. In January 2015, EFSA published its final opinion on its comprehensive re-evaluation of BPA exposure and toxicity, which concluded that BPA poses no health risk to consumers of any age group (including unborn children, infants and adolescents) at currently permitted exposure levels. EFSA again confirmed this conclusion in October 2016, paving the way for enactment of an EU specific migration limit of 50 ppb in 2017. The EU Committee for Risk Assessment has adopted an opinion to change the existing harmonized classification and labeling of BPA from a category 2 reproductive Toxicant to a category 1B reproductive Toxicant. This classification change will become effective March 1, 2018. Regulatory and legislative initiatives such as these would likely result in a reduction in demand for BPA and our products containing BPA and could also result in additional liabilities as well as an increase in operating costs to meet more stringent regulations. Such increases in operating costs and/or reduction in demand could have a material adverse effect on our operations and profitability.
We manufacture resin-encapsulated sand. Because sand consists primarily of crystalline silica, potential exposure to silica particulate exists. Overexposure to crystalline silica is a recognized health hazard. OSHA proposed a new comprehensive occupational health standard for crystalline silica in August 2013, which was submitted as a draft rule to the US Office of Management and Budget in December 2015. The final rule, issued March 25, 2016, among other things, lowers the permissible occupational exposure limits to airborne crystalline silica particulate to which workers would be allowed to be exposed. We may incur additional costs to comply with the new OSHA regulation.

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In addition, we sell resin-encapsulated sand (proppants) to oil and natural gas drilling operators for use in a process known as hydraulic fracturing. Drilling and hydraulic fracturing of wells is under public and governmental scrutiny due to potential environmental and physical impacts, including possible contamination of groundwater and drinking water and possible links to earthquakes. Currently, studies and reviews of hydraulic fracturing environmental impacts are underway by the USEPA, as directed by the U.S. Congress in 2010. In December 2016, USEPA released its final report on the impacts from hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources in the U.S., finding potential impact to water resources under some circumstances. Legislation is being considered or has been adopted by various U.S. states and localities to require public disclosure of the contents of the fracking fluids and/or to further regulate oil and natural gas drilling. New laws and regulations could affect the confidential business information of fracking fluids, including those associated with our proppant technologies and the number of wells drilled by operators, decrease demand for our resin-coated sands and cause a decline in our operations and financial performance. Such a decline in demand could also increase competition and decrease pricing of our products, which could also have a negative impact on our profitability and financial performance.
Scientists periodically conduct studies on the potential human health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including products we manufacture and sell. Also, nongovernmental advocacy organizations and individuals periodically issue public statements alleging human health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including products we manufacture and sell. Based upon such studies or public statements, our customers may elect to discontinue the purchase and use of our products, even in the absence of any government regulation. Such actions could significantly decrease the demand for our products and, accordingly, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and profitability. In July 2012, the FDA concluded that polycarbonate, a plastic resin made from BPA, was no longer being used in the manufacture of certain infant and toddler beverage containers and, accordingly, approved a petition from the ACC to remove polycarbonate from the list of material approved for the use in the manufacture of such beverage containers. Abandonment of such uses of polycarbonate was due at least in part to adverse publicity alleging possible health effects on infants and toddlers of small amounts of BPA released from the polycarbonate. The FDA’s authority to act on this petition was based solely on marketplace conditions. As noted by the FDA, their action is not based on any finding or conclusion that packaging containing BPA is unsafe. Although the FDA’s determination will not have a direct impact on our business, it could eventually result in a determination by some of our customers to discontinue or decrease the use of our products made from BPA.
We are subject to certain risks related to litigation filed by or against us, and adverse results may harm our business.
We cannot predict with certainty the cost of defense, of prosecution or of the ultimate outcome of litigation and other proceedings filed by or against us, including penalties or other civil or criminal sanctions, or remedies or damage awards, and adverse results in any litigation and other proceedings may materially harm our business. Litigation and other proceedings may include, but are not limited to, actions relating to intellectual property, international trade, commercial arrangements, product liability, environmental, health and safety, joint venture agreements, labor and employment or other harms resulting from the actions of individuals or entities outside of our control. In the case of intellectual property litigation and proceedings, adverse outcomes could include the cancellation, invalidation or other loss of material intellectual property rights used in our business and injunctions prohibiting our use of business processes or technology that are subject to third-party patents or other third-party intellectual property rights. Litigation based on environmental matters or exposure to hazardous substances in the workplace or based upon the use of our products could result in significant liability for us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or profitability.
Because we manufacture and use materials that are known to be hazardous, we are subject to, or affected by, certain product and manufacturing regulations, for which compliance can be costly and time consuming. In addition, we may be subject to personal injury or product liability claims as a result of human exposure to such hazardous materials.
We produce hazardous chemicals that require care in handling and use that are subject to regulation by many U.S. and non-U.S. national, supra-national, state and local governmental authorities. In some circumstances, these authorities must review and, in some cases approve, our products and/or manufacturing processes and facilities before we may manufacture and sell some of these chemicals. To be able to manufacture and sell certain new chemical products, we may be required, among other things, to demonstrate to the relevant authority that the product does not pose an unreasonable risk during its intended uses and/or that we are capable of manufacturing the product in compliance with current regulations. The process of seeking any necessary approvals can be costly, time consuming and subject to unanticipated and significant delays. Approvals may not be granted to us on a timely basis, or at all. Any delay in obtaining, or any failure to obtain or maintain, these approvals would adversely affect our ability to introduce new products and to generate revenue from those products. New laws and regulations may be introduced in the future that could result in additional compliance costs, bans on product sales or use, seizures, confiscation, recall or monetary fines, any of which could prevent or inhibit the development, distribution or sale of our products and could increase our customers’ efforts to find less hazardous substitutes for our products. We are subject to ongoing reviews of our products and manufacturing processes.
As discussed above, we manufacture and sell products containing formaldehyde, and certain governmental bodies have stated that there is a causal link between formaldehyde exposure and certain types of cancer, including myeloid leukemia and NPC. These conclusions could also become the basis of product liability litigation.
Other products we have made or used have been and could be the focus of legal claims based upon allegations of harm to human health. While we cannot predict the outcome of pending suits and claims, we believe that we maintain adequate reserves, in accordance with our policy, to address currently pending litigation and are adequately insured to cover currently pending and foreseeable future claims. However, an unfavorable outcome in these litigation matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or profitability and cause our reputation to decline.

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We are subject to claims from our customers and their employees, environmental action groups and neighbors living near our production facilities.
We produce and use hazardous chemicals that require appropriate procedures and care to be used in handling them or in using them to manufacture other products. As a result of the hazardous nature of some of the products we produce and use, we may face claims relating to incidents that involve our customers’ improper handling, storage and use of our products. We have historically faced lawsuits, including class action lawsuits that claim liability for death, injury or property damage caused by products that we manufacture or that contain our components. Additionally, we may face lawsuits alleging personal injury or property damage by neighbors living near our production facilities. These lawsuits, and any future lawsuits, could result in substantial damage awards against us, which in turn could encourage additional lawsuits and could cause us to incur significant legal fees to defend such lawsuits, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or profitability. In addition, the activities of environmental action groups could result in litigation or damage to our reputation.
As a global business, we are subject to numerous risks associated with our international operations that could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We have significant manufacturing and other operations outside the United States. Some of these operations are in jurisdictions with unstable political or economic conditions. There are numerous inherent risks in international operations, including, but not limited to:
exchange controls and currency restrictions;
currency fluctuations and devaluations;
tariffs and trade barriers imposed by the current U.S. administration or foreign governments;
renegotiation of trade agreements by the current U.S. administration;
export duties and quotas;
changes in local economic conditions;
changes in laws and regulations;
exposure to possible expropriation or other government actions;
acts by national or regional banks, including the European Central Bank, to increase or restrict the availability of credit;
hostility from local populations;
diminished ability to legally enforce our contractual rights in non-U.S. countries;
restrictions on our ability to repatriate dividends from our subsidiaries; and
unsettled political conditions and possible terrorist attacks against U.S. interests.
Our international operations expose us to different local political and business risks and challenges. For example, we may face potential difficulties in staffing and managing local operations, and we may have to design local solutions to manage credit risks of local customers and distributors. In addition, some of our operations are located in regions that may be politically unstable, having particular exposure to riots, civil commotion or civil unrests, acts of war (declared or undeclared) or armed hostilities or other national or international calamity. In some of these regions, our status as a U.S. company also exposes us to increased risk of sabotage, terrorist attacks, interference by civil or military authorities or to greater impact from the national and global military, diplomatic and financial response to any future attacks or other threats.
In addition, intellectual property rights may be more difficult to enforce in non-U.S. or non-Western European countries.
If global economic and market conditions, or economic conditions in Europe, China, Brazil, the United States or other key markets remain uncertain or deteriorate further, the value of associated foreign currencies and the global credit markets may weaken. Additionally, general financial instability in countries where we do not transact a significant amount of business could have a contagion effect and contribute to the general instability and uncertainty within a particular region or globally. If this were to occur, it could adversely affect our customers and suppliers and in turn have a materially adverse effect on our international business and results of operations.
Our overall success as a global business depends, in part, upon our ability to succeed under different economic, social and political conditions. We may fail to develop and implement policies and strategies that are effective in each location where we do business, and failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business is subject to foreign currency risk.
In 2016, approximately 60% of our net sales originated outside the United States. In our consolidated financial statements, we translate our local currency financial results into U.S. dollars based on average exchange rates prevailing during a reporting period or the exchange rate at the end of that period. During times of a strengthening U.S. dollar, at a constant level of business, our reported international revenues and earnings would be reduced because the local currency would translate into fewer U.S. dollars.
In addition to currency translation risks, we incur a currency transaction risk whenever we enter into a purchase or a sales transaction or indebtedness transaction using a different currency from the currency in which we record revenues. Given the recent volatility of exchange rates, we may not manage our currency transaction and/or translation risks effectively, and volatility in currency exchange rates may materially adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations, including our tax obligations. Since the vast majority of our indebtedness is denominated in U.S. dollars, a strengthening of the U.S. dollar could make it more difficult for us to repay our indebtedness.

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We have entered and expect to continue to enter into various hedging and other programs in an effort to protect against adverse changes in the non-U.S. exchange markets and attempt to minimize potential material adverse effects. These hedging and other programs may be unsuccessful in protecting against these risks. Our results of operations could be materially adversely affected if the U.S. dollar strengthens against non-U.S. currencies and our protective strategies are not successful. Likewise, a strengthening U.S. dollar provides opportunities to source raw materials more cheaply from foreign countries.
Fluctuations in energy costs could have an adverse impact on our profitability and negatively affect our financial condition.
Oil and natural gas prices have fluctuated greatly over the past several years and we anticipate that they will continue to do so. Natural gas and electricity are essential to our manufacturing processes, which are energy-intensive. Our energy costs represented approximately 4% of our total cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Our operating expenses will increase if our energy prices increase. Increased energy prices may also result in greater raw materials costs. If we cannot pass these costs through to our customers, our profitability may decline. Increased energy costs may also negatively affect our customers and the demand for our products. In addition, as oil and natural gas prices fall, while having a positive effect on our overall costs, such falling prices can have a negative impact on our oil field business, as the number of oil and natural gas wells drilled declines in response to market condition.
If energy prices decrease, we expect benefits in the short-run with decreased operating expenses and increased operating income, but may face increased pricing pressure from competitors that are similarly impacted by energy prices. As a result, profitability may decrease over an extended period of time of lower energy prices. Moreover, any future increases in energy prices after a period of lower energy prices may have an adverse impact on our profitability for the reasons described above.
We face increased competition from other companies and from substitute products, which could force us to lower our prices, which would adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.
Several of the markets that we operate in are highly competitive, and this competition could harm our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Our competitors include major international producers as well as smaller regional competitors. We believe that the most significant competitive factor that impacts demand for certain of our products is selling price. We may be forced to lower our selling price based on our competitors’ pricing decisions, which would reduce our profitability. Certain markets that we serve have become commoditized in recent years and have given rise to several industry participants, resulting in fierce price competition in these markets. This has been further magnified by the impact of the recent global economic downturn, as companies have focused more on price to retain business and market share. In addition, we face competition from a number of products that are potential substitutes for our products. Growth in substitute products could adversely affect our market share, net sales and profit margins.
Additional trends include current and anticipated consolidation among our competitors and customers which may cause us to lose market share as well as put downward pressure on pricing. There is also a trend in our industries toward relocating manufacturing facilities to lower cost regions, such as Asia, which may permit some of our competitors to lower their costs and improve their competitive position. Furthermore, there has been an increase in new competitors based in these regions.
Some of our competitors are larger, have greater financial resources, have a lower cost structure, and/or have less debt than we do. As a result, those competitors may be better able to withstand a change in conditions within our industry and in the economy as a whole. If we do not compete successfully, our operating margins, financial condition, cash flows and profitability could be adversely affected. Furthermore, if we do not have adequate capital to invest in technology, including expenditures for research and development, our technology could be rendered uneconomical or obsolete, negatively affecting our ability to remain competitive.
We have achieved significant cost savings as a result of the Shared Services Agreement with MPM. If the Shared Services Agreement is terminated or further amended, if we have material disputes with MPM regarding its implementation or if we are unable to implement new initiatives under the amended agreement, it could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, results of operations, and financial condition.
In October 2010, we entered into the Shared Services Agreement with MPM (which, from October 1, 2010 through October 24, 2014, was a subsidiary of Hexion Holdings). The Shared Services Agreement was amended in October 2014. Under this agreement, we provide to MPM, and MPM provides to us, certain services, including, but not limited to, executive and senior management, administrative support, human resources, information technology support, accounting, finance, technology development, legal and procurement services. We have realized significant cost savings under the Shared Service Agreement, including savings related to shared services and logistics optimization, best-of-source contractual terms, procurement savings, regional site rationalization, administrative and overhead savings. The Shared Services Agreement is subject to termination by MPM (or us), without cause, on not less than thirty days prior written notice, but provides for a 12 - 14 month transition period, and expires in October 2017 (subject to one-year renewals every year thereafter, absent contrary notice from either party).
Each year, the parties review and adjust the level and extent of services provided to meet the current needs of both companies. If the Shared Services Agreement is terminated, or if the parties to the amended agreement have material disagreements with its implementation, it could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, results of operations and financial condition, as we would need to replace the services no longer being provided by MPM, and would lose a portion of the benefits being generated under the agreement at the time.

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We expect additional cost savings from our other strategic initiatives, and if we are unable to achieve these cost savings, or sustain our current cost structure, it could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, results of operations and financial condition.
We have not yet realized all of the cost savings and synergies we expect to achieve from our other strategic initiatives. A variety of risks could cause us not to realize the expected cost savings and synergies, including but not limited to, higher than expected severance costs related to staff reductions; higher than expected retention costs for employees that will be retained; higher than expected stand-alone overhead expenses; delays in the anticipated timing of activities related to our cost-saving plan; and other unexpected costs associated with operating our business.
If we are unable to achieve these cost savings or synergies it could adversely affect our profitability and financial condition. In addition, while we have been successful in reducing costs and generating savings, factors may arise that may not allow us to sustain our current cost structure. As market and economic conditions change, we may also make changes to our operating cost structure.
Our success depends in part on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights, and our inability to enforce these rights could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position.
We rely on the patent, trademark, copyright and trade-secret laws of the United States and the countries where we do business to protect our intellectual property rights. We may be unable to prevent third parties from using our intellectual property without our authorization. The unauthorized use of our intellectual property could reduce any competitive advantage we have developed, reduce our market share or otherwise harm our business. In the event of unauthorized use of our intellectual property, litigation to protect or enforce our rights could be costly, and we may not prevail.
Many of our technologies are not covered by any patent or patent application, and our issued and pending U.S. and non-U.S. patents may not provide us with any competitive advantage and could be challenged by third parties. Our inability to secure issuance of our pending patent applications may limit our ability to protect the intellectual property rights these pending patent applications were intended to cover. Our competitors may attempt to design around our patents to avoid liability for infringement and, if successful, our competitors could adversely affect our market share. Furthermore, the expiration of our patents may lead to increased competition.
Our pending trademark applications may not be approved by the responsible governmental authorities and, even if these trademark applications are granted, third parties may seek to oppose or otherwise challenge these trademark applications. A failure to obtain trademark registrations in the United States and in other countries could limit our ability to protect our products and their associated trademarks and impede our marketing efforts in those jurisdictions.
In addition, effective patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries. In some countries we do not apply for patent, trademark or copyright protection. We also rely on unpatented proprietary manufacturing expertise, continuing technological innovation and other trade secrets to develop and maintain our competitive position. While we generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees and third parties to protect our intellectual property, these confidentiality agreements are limited in duration and could be breached, and may not provide meaningful protection of our trade secrets or proprietary manufacturing expertise. Adequate remedies may not be available if there is an unauthorized use or disclosure of our trade secrets and manufacturing expertise. In addition, others may obtain knowledge about our trade secrets through independent development or by legal means. The failure to protect our processes, apparatuses, technology, trade secrets and proprietary manufacturing expertise, methods and compounds could have a material adverse effect on our business by jeopardizing critical intellectual property.
Where a product formulation or process is kept as a trade secret, third parties may independently develop or invent and patent products or processes identical to our trade-secret products or processes. This could have an adverse impact on our ability to make and sell products or use such processes and could potentially result in costly litigation in which we might not prevail.
We could face intellectual property infringement claims that could result in significant legal costs and damages and impede our ability to produce key products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our production processes and products are specialized; however, we could face intellectual property infringement claims from our competitors or others alleging that our processes or products infringe on their proprietary technology. If we were subject to an infringement suit, we may be required to change our processes or products, or stop using certain technologies or producing the infringing product entirely. Even if we ultimately prevail in an infringement suit, the existence of the suit could cause our customers to seek other products that are not subject to infringement suits. Any infringement suit could result in significant legal costs and damages and impede our ability to produce key products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on certain of our key executives and our ability to attract and retain qualified employees.
Our ability to operate our business and implement our strategies depends, in part, on the skills, experience and efforts of key members of our leadership team. We do not maintain any key-man insurance on any of these individuals. In addition, our success will depend on, among other factors, our ability to attract and retain other managerial, scientific and technical qualified personnel, particularly research scientists, technical sales professionals, and engineers who have specialized skills required by our business and focused on the industries in which we compete. Competition for qualified employees in the chemicals industry is intense and the loss of the services of any of our key employees or the failure to attract or retain other qualified personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business or business prospects. Further, if any of these executives or employees joins a competitor, we could lose customers and suppliers and incur additional expenses to recruit and train personnel, who require time to become productive and to learn our business.

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Our majority shareholder’s interest may conflict with or differ from our interests.
Apollo controls our ultimate parent company, Hexion Holdings LLC, or Hexion Holdings, which indirectly owns 100% of our common equity. In addition, Apollo has significant representation on Hexion Holdings’ Board of Managers. As a result, Apollo can significantly influence our ability to enter into significant corporate transactions such as mergers, tender offers and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets. The interests of Apollo and its affiliates could conflict with or differ from our interests. For example, the concentration of ownership held by Apollo could delay, defer or prevent a change of control of our company or impede a merger, takeover or other business combination which may otherwise be favorable for us.
Additionally, Apollo is in the business of making investments in companies and may, from time to time, acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete, directly or indirectly with us. Apollo may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. Additionally, even if Apollo invests in competing businesses through Hexion Holdings, such investments may be made through a newly-formed subsidiary of Hexion Holdings. Any such investment may increase the potential for the conflicts of interest discussed in this risk factor.
So long as Apollo continues to indirectly own a significant amount of the equity of Hexion Holdings, even if such amount is less than 50%, they will continue to be able to substantially influence or effectively control our ability to enter into any corporate transactions.
Because our equity securities are not and will not be registered under the securities laws of the United States or in any other jurisdiction and are not listed on any U.S. securities exchange, we are not subject to certain of the corporate governance requirements of U.S. securities authorities or to any corporate governance requirements of any U.S. securities exchanges.
If we fail to extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements with our works councils and labor unions as they expire from time to time, if disputes with our works councils or unions arise, or if our unionized or represented employees were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, our business and operating results could be materially adversely affected.
As of December 31, 2016, approximately 37% of our employees were unionized or represented by works councils that were covered by collective bargaining agreements. In addition, some of our employees reside in countries in which employment laws provide greater bargaining or other employee rights than the laws of the United States. These rights may require us to expend more time and money altering or amending employees’ terms of employment or making staff reductions. For example, most of our employees in Europe are represented by works councils, which generally must approve changes in conditions of employment, including restructuring initiatives and changes in salaries and benefits. A significant dispute could divert our management’s attention and otherwise hinder our ability to conduct our business or to achieve planned cost savings.
We may be unable to timely extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements as they expire. We have collective bargaining agreements which will expire during the next two years. We also may be subject to strikes or work stoppages by, or disputes with, our labor unions. If we fail to extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements, if disputes with our works councils or unions arise or if our unionized or represented workers engage in a strike or other work stoppage, we could incur higher labor costs or experience a significant disruption of operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
Our pension plans are unfunded or under-funded and our required cash contributions could be higher than we expect, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity.
We sponsor various pension and similar benefit plans worldwide.
Our U.S. and non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans were under-funded in the aggregate by $35 and $199, respectively, as of December 31, 2016. We are legally required to make contributions to our pension plans in the future, and those contributions could be material.
In 2017, we do not expect to make any contributions to our U.S. defined benefit pension plan and we expect to contribute approximately $23 to our non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans, which we believe is sufficient to meet the minimum funding requirements as set forth in employee benefit and tax laws.
Our future funding obligations for our employee benefit plans depend upon the levels of benefits provided for by the plans, the future performance of assets set aside for these plans, the rates of interest used to determine funding levels, the impact of potential business dispositions, actuarial data and experience, and any changes in government laws and regulations. In addition, our employee benefit plans hold a significant amount of equity securities. If the market values of these securities decline, our pension expense and funding requirements would increase and, as a result, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Any decrease in interest rates and asset returns, if and to the extent not offset by contributions, could increase our obligations under these plans. If the performance of assets in the funded plans does not meet our expectations, our cash contributions for these plans could be higher than we expect, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity.

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Natural or other disasters have, and could in the future, disrupt our business and result in loss of revenue or higher expenses.
Any serious disruption at any of our facilities or our suppliers’ facilities due to hurricane, fire, earthquake, flood, terrorist attack or any other natural or man-made disaster could impair our ability to use our facilities and have a material adverse impact on our revenues and increase our costs and expenses. If there is a natural disaster or other serious disruption at any of our facilities or our suppliers’ facilities, it could impair our ability to adequately supply our customers and negatively impact our operating results. For example, our manufacturing facilities in the U.S. Gulf Coast region were also impacted by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008. In addition, many of our current and potential customers are concentrated in specific geographic areas. A disaster in one of these regions could have a material adverse impact on our operations, operating results and financial condition. Our business interruption insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our losses from a disaster, in which case our unreimbursed losses could be substantial. Some of our operations are located in regions with particular exposure to natural disasters such as storms, floods, fires and earthquakes. It would be difficult or impossible for us to relocate these operations and, as a result, any of the aforementioned occurrences could materially adversely affect our business.
Security breaches and other disruptions to our information technology infrastructure could interfere with our operations, and could compromise our information and the information of our customers and suppliers, exposing us to liability which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.
In the ordinary course of business, we rely upon information technology networks and systems, some of which are managed by third parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities, including supply chain, manufacturing, distribution, invoicing, and collection of payments from customers. We use information technology systems to record, process and summarize financial information and results of operations for internal reporting purposes and to comply with regulatory financial reporting, legal and tax requirements. Additionally, we collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, proprietary business information, the propriety business information of our customers and suppliers, as well as personally identifiable information of our customers and employees, in data centers and on information technology networks. The secure operation of these information technology networks, and the processing and maintenance of this information is critical to our business operations and strategy. Despite security measures and business continuity plans, our information technology networks and infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to attacks by hackers or breaches due to employee error or malfeasance, or other disruptions during the process of upgrading or replacing computer software or hardware, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures or natural disasters or other catastrophic events. The occurrence of any of these events could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information, disrupt operations, and damage our reputation, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Acquisitions and joint ventures that we pursue may present unforeseen integration obstacles and costs, increase our leverage and negatively impact our performance. Divestitures that we pursue also may present unforeseen obstacles and costs and alter the synergies we expect to continue to achieve from the Shared Services Agreement with MPM.
We have made acquisitions of related businesses, and entered into joint ventures in the past and intend to selectively pursue acquisitions of, and joint ventures with, related businesses as one element of our growth strategy. Acquisitions may require us to assume or incur additional debt financing, resulting in additional leverage and complex debt structures. If such acquisitions are consummated, the risk factors we describe above and below, and for our business generally, may be intensified.
Our ability to implement our growth strategy could be limited by covenants in our ABL Facility, indentures and other indebtedness, our financial resources, including available cash and borrowing capacity, and our ability to integrate or identify appropriate acquisition and joint venture candidates.
The expense incurred in consummating acquisitions of related businesses, or our failure to integrate such businesses successfully into our existing businesses, could result in our incurring unanticipated expenses and losses. Furthermore, we may not be able to realize any anticipated benefits from acquisitions or joint ventures. The process of integrating acquired operations into our existing operations may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and may require significant financial resources that would otherwise be available for the ongoing development or expansion of existing operations. Some of the risks associated with our acquisition and joint venture strategy include:
potential disruptions of our ongoing business and distraction of management;
unexpected loss of key employees or customers of the acquired company;
conforming the acquired company’s standards, processes, procedures and controls with our operations;
coordinating new product and process development;
hiring additional management and other critical personnel; and
increasing the scope, geographic diversity and complexity of our operations.
In addition, we may encounter unforeseen obstacles or costs in the integration of acquired businesses. For example, if we were to acquire an international business, the preparation of the U.S. GAAP financial statements could require significant management resources. Also, the presence of one or more material liabilities of an acquired company that are unknown to us at the time of acquisition may have a material adverse effect on our business. Our acquisition and joint venture strategy may not be successfully received by customers, and we may not realize any anticipated benefits from acquisitions or joint ventures.

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In addition, we have selectively made, and may in the future, pursue divestitures of certain of our businesses as one element of our portfolio optimization strategy. Divestitures may require us to separate integrated assets and personnel from our retained businesses and devote our resources to transitioning assets and services to purchasers, resulting in disruptions to our ongoing business and distraction of management. Divestitures may alter synergies we expect to continue to achieve from the Shared Services Agreement with MPM.
We could face additional income tax obligations based on tax reform proposals.
As a result of the 2016 U.S. election and ongoing activity in the U.S. Congress on tax reform proposals, there is a heightened possibility of significant changes to U.S. federal income tax laws. From time to time, legislative proposals have been introduced that, if enacted, could have a material and adverse effect on our business. Of particular interest to our business are potential changes that would impact at least some of our significant tax attributes. Those attributes include our U.S. Net Operating Losses, unremitted foreign earnings and net interest expense, all of which would be adversely impacted if unfavorable tax legislation were to be enacted. We are unable to predict when or if such legislation will be introduced, whether or not such legislation will be enacted, what specific provisions will be included or what the effective date will be, and as a result the ultimate impact on us of such legislation is uncertain.  
If we fail to establish and maintain an effective internal control environment, our ability to both timely and accurately report our financial results could be adversely affected.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires companies to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of their internal control over financial reporting. To comply with this statute, each year we are required to document and test our internal control over financial reporting, our management is required to assess and issue a report concerning our internal control over financial reporting.
The existence of one or more material weaknesses has resulted in, and could continue to result in, errors in our financial statements, and substantial costs and resources may be required to rectify these errors or other internal control deficiencies and may cause us to incur other costs, including potential legal expenses. If we cannot produce reliable financial reports, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and we may be unable to obtain additional financing to operate and expand our business and our business and financial condition could be harmed.
Although we believe we have remediated the control deficiencies we identified and are taking appropriate actions to strengthen our internal control over financial reporting, we cannot assure you that the measures we have taken to date, or any measures we may take in the future, will be sufficient to avoid potential future material weaknesses.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to meet our consolidated debt service payments.
On February 8, 2017, we issued $485 aggregate principal amount of 10.375% First Priority Senior Secured Notes due 2022 (the “New First Lien Notes”) and $225 aggregate principal amount of 13.75% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 (the “New Senior Secured Notes”). Upon the closing of these offerings, we satisfied and discharged our obligations under the 8.875% Senior Secured Notes due 2018 (the “Old Senior Secured Notes”) by irrevocably depositing the net proceeds from these offerings, together with cash from our balance sheet, with the trustee for the Old Senior Secured Notes for the purpose of redeeming all of our outstanding Old Senior Secured Notes, which redemption will occur on March 10, 2017. In December 2016, we amended and restated our ABL Facility, with modifications to, among other things, permit the refinancing of the Old Senior Secured Notes. In connection with the issuance of the new notes in February 2017, certain lenders under the ABL Facility provided extended revolving facility commitments in an aggregate principal amount of $350 with a maturity date of December 5, 2021 (subject to early maturity triggers), the existing commitments were terminated and the size of the ABL facility was reduced from $400 to $350. Collectively, we refer to these transactions as the “2017 Refinancing Transactions.”
We have substantial consolidated indebtedness. As of December 31, 2016, both before and after giving effect to the 2017 Refinancing Transactions, we had approximately $3.5 billion of consolidated outstanding indebtedness, including payments due within the next twelve months and short-term borrowings. In addition, both before and after giving effect to 2017 Refinancing Transactions, we had a $299 undrawn revolver under our ABL Facility, subject to a borrowing base, after giving effect to $35 of outstanding letters of credit. In 2017, our annualized cash interest expense is projected to be approximately $298 based on consolidated indebtedness, as adjusted for the 2017 Refinancing Transactions, and interest rates at December 31, 2016, of which $291 represents cash interest expense on fixed-rate obligations, including variable rate debt subject to interest rate swap agreements.
As of December 31, 2016, both before and after giving effect to the 2017 Refinancing Transactions, approximately $94, or 3%, of our borrowings were at variable interest rates and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same. Assuming our consolidated variable interest rate indebtedness outstanding as of December 31, 2016 remains the same, an increase of 1% in the interest rates payable on our variable rate indebtedness would increase our annual estimated debt service requirements by approximately $1.

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Our ability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to make scheduled debt service payments depends on a range of economic, competitive and business factors, many of which are outside of our control. Our business may generate insufficient cash flows from operations to meet our debt service and other obligations, and currently anticipated cost savings, working capital reductions and operating improvements may not be realized on schedule, or at all. If we are unable to meet our expenses and debt service obligations, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity, sell assets or issue additional equity securities. We may be unable to refinance any of our indebtedness, sell assets or issue equity securities on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, which could cause us to default on our obligations and result in the acceleration of our debt obligations. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our outstanding debt obligations, or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Availability under the ABL Facility is subject to a borrowing base based on a specified percentage of eligible accounts receivable and inventory and, with respect to the foreign loan parties, a specified percentage of eligible machinery, equipment and real property, subject to certain limitations. As of December 31, 2016, both before and after giving effect to the 2017 Refinancing Transactions, the borrowing base reflecting various required reserves was approximately $334, and our borrowing availability after factoring in letters of credit outstanding under the ABL Facility was $299. However, the borrowing base (including various reserves) will be updated on a monthly basis, so the actual borrowing base could be lower in the future. To the extent the borrowing base is lower than we expect, that could significantly impair our liquidity. In addition, if our fixed charge coverage ratio falls to less than 1.0 to 1.0, we will need to ensure that our availability under the ABL Facility is at least the greater of $35 and 12.5% of the lesser of the borrowing base and the total commitments under the ABL Facility.
Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations and limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry.
Our substantial consolidated indebtedness could have other important consequences, including but not limited to the following:
it may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our operations or business;
we are more highly leveraged than many of our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage;
it may make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business or in the economy;
a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations will be dedicated to the repayment of our indebtedness and will not be available for other purposes;
it may restrict us from making strategic acquisitions, introducing new technologies or exploiting business opportunities;
it may make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our existing indebtedness;
it may adversely affect terms under which suppliers provide material and services to us;
it may limit our ability to borrow additional funds or dispose of assets; and
it may limit our ability to fully achieve possible cost savings from the Shared Services Agreement with MPM.
There would be a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition if we were unable to service our indebtedness or obtain additional financing, as needed.
Despite our substantial indebtedness, we may still be able to incur additional indebtedness. This could intensify the risks described above and below.
We may be able to incur additional indebtedness in the future. Although the terms governing our indebtedness contain restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to numerous qualifications and exceptions, and the indebtedness we may incur in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. Increasing our indebtedness could intensify the risks described above and below.
The terms governing our outstanding debt, including restrictive covenants, may adversely affect our operations.
The terms governing our outstanding debt contain, and any future indebtedness we incur would likely contain, numerous restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on our ability to, among other things:
incur or guarantee additional debt;
pay dividends and make other distributions to our shareholders;
create or incur certain liens;
make certain loans, acquisitions, capital expenditures or investments;
engage in sales of assets and subsidiary stock;
enter into sale/leaseback transactions;
enter into transactions with affiliates; and
transfer all or substantially all of our assets or enter into merger or consolidation transactions.

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In addition, the credit agreement governing our ABL Facility requires us to maintain a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.0 to 1.0 at any time when the availability is less than the greater of (x) $35 and (y) 12.5% of the lesser of the borrowing base and the total ABL Facility commitments at such time. The fixed charge coverage ratio under the credit agreement governing the ABL Facility is generally defined as the ratio of (a) Adjusted EBITDA minus non-financed capital expenditures and cash taxes to (b) debt service plus cash interest expense plus certain restricted payments, each measured for the four most recent quarters for which financial statements have been delivered. We may not be able to satisfy such ratio in future periods. If we anticipate we will be unable to meet such ratio, we expect not to allow our availability under the ABL Facility to fall below such levels.
A breach of our fixed charge coverage ratio covenant, if in effect, would result in an event of default under our ABL Facility. Pursuant to the terms of our ABL Facility, our direct parent company will have the right, but not the obligation, to cure such default through the purchase of additional equity in up to two of any four consecutive quarters and seven total during the term of the ABL Facility. If a breach of a fixed charge coverage ratio covenant is not cured or waived, or if any other event of default under the ABL Facility occurs, the lenders under such credit facility:
would not be required to lend any additional amounts to us;
could elect to declare all borrowings outstanding under the ABL Facility, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, due and payable and could demand cash collateral for all letters of credit issued thereunder;
could apply all of our available cash that is subject to the cash sweep mechanism of the ABL Facility to repay these borrowings; and/or
could prevent us from making payments on our notes;
any or all of which could result in an event of default under our notes.
The ABL Facility provides for “springing control” over the cash in our deposit accounts constituting collateral for the ABL Facility, and such cash management arrangements includes a cash sweep at any time that availability under the ABL Facility is less than the greater of (x) $35 and (y) 12.5% of the lesser of the borrowing base and the total ABL Facility commitments at such time. Such cash sweep, if in effect, will cause all our available cash to be applied to outstanding borrowings under our ABL Facility. If we satisfy the conditions to borrowings under the ABL Facility while any such cash sweep is in effect, we may be able to make additional borrowings under the ABL Facility to satisfy our working capital and other operational needs. If we do not satisfy the conditions to borrowing, we will not be permitted to make additional borrowings under our ABL Facility, and we will not have sufficient cash to satisfy our working capital and other operational needs.
In addition, the terms governing our indebtedness limit our ability to sell assets and also restrict the use of proceeds from that sale, including restrictions on transfers from us to MPM and vice versa. We may be unable to sell assets quickly enough or for sufficient amounts to enable us to meet our obligations. Furthermore, a substantial portion of our assets is, and may continue to be, intangible assets. Therefore, it may be difficult for us to pay our consolidated debt obligations in the event of an acceleration of any of our consolidated indebtedness.
Repayment of our debt, including required principal and interest payments, depends on cash flows generated by our subsidiaries, which may be subject to limitations beyond our control.
Our subsidiaries own a significant portion of our consolidated assets and conduct a significant portion of our consolidated operations. Repayment of our indebtedness depends, to a significant extent, on the generation of cash flows and the ability of our subsidiaries to make cash available to us by dividend, debt repayment or otherwise. Our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable us to make payments on our indebtedness. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from subsidiaries. While there are limitations on the ability of our subsidiaries to incur consensual restrictions on their ability to pay dividends or make intercompany payments, these limitations are subject to certain qualifications and exceptions. In the event that we are unable to receive distributions from our subsidiaries, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.
A downgrade in our debt ratings could restrict our access to, and negatively impact the terms of, current or future financings or trade credit.
Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“S&P”) and Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) maintain credit ratings on us and certain of our debt. Each of these ratings is currently below investment grade. Any decision by these or other ratings agencies to downgrade such ratings in the future could restrict our access to, and negatively impact the terms of, current or future financings and trade credit extended by our suppliers of raw materials or other vendors.
ITEM 1B - UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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ITEM 2 - PROPERTIES
Our headquarters are in Columbus, Ohio and we have executive offices in Rotterdam, Netherlands and Shanghai, China. Our major manufacturing facilities are primarily located in North America and Europe. As of December 31, 2016, we operated 23 domestic production and manufacturing facilities in 12 states and 32 foreign production and manufacturing facilities primarily in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Korea, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom and Uruguay.
The majority of our facilities are used for the production of thermosetting resins, and most of them manufacture more than one type of thermosetting resin, the nature of which varies by site. These facilities typically use batch technology, and range in size from small sites, with a limited number of reactors, to larger sites, with dozens of reactors. One exception to this is our plant in Deer Park, Texas, the only continuous-process epoxy resins plant in the world, which provides us with a cost advantage over conventional technology.
In addition, we have the ability to internally produce key intermediate materials such as formaldehyde, BPA, ECH, versatic acid and acrylic acid. This backward integration provides us with cost advantages and facilitates our adequacy of supply. These facilities are usually co-located with downstream resin manufacturing facilities they serve. As these intermediate materials facilities are often much larger than a typical resins plant, we can capture the benefits of manufacturing efficiency and scale by selling material that we do not use internally to third parties.
We believe our production and manufacturing facilities are well maintained and effectively utilized and are adequate to operate our business. Following are our more significant production and manufacturing facilities and executive offices:
Location
 
Nature of Ownership
  
Reporting Segment
Argo, IL*
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Barry, UK*
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Brady, TX
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Deer Park, TX*
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Duisburg-Meiderich, Germany
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Iserlohn-Letmathe, Germany
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Lakeland, FL
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Louisville, KY
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Moerdijk, Netherlands*
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Onsan, South Korea
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Pernis, Netherlands*
 
Owned
  
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Solbiate Olona, Italy
 
Owned
 
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Zhenjiang, China
 
Owned
 
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Curitiba, Brazil
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
Montenegro, Brazil
 
Owned
 
Forest Products Resins
Edmonton, AB, Canada
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
Fayetteville, NC
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
Kitee, Finland
 
Owned
 
Forest Products Resins
Luling, LA*
 
Owned
 
Forest Products Resins
Geismar, LA
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
Gonzales, LA
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
Hope, AR
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
Springfield, OR
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
St. Romuald, QC, Canada
 
Owned
  
Forest Products Resins
Columbus, OH†
 
Leased
  
Corporate and Other
Rotterdam, Netherlands†
 
Leased
  
Corporate and Other
Shanghai, China†
 
Leased
  
Corporate and Other
__________________________________
*
We own all of the assets at this location. The land is leased.
Executive offices.

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ITEM 3 - LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Legal Proceedings
We are involved in various product liability, commercial and employment litigation, personal injury, property damage and other legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business, including actions that allege harm caused by products the Company has allegedly made or used, containing silica, vinyl chloride monomer and asbestos. The following claims represent material proceedings outstanding that are not in the ordinary course of business.
Environmental Damages to the Port of Paranagua, Brazil
On August 10, 2005, the Environmental Institute of Paraná (IAP), an environmental agency in the State of Paraná, provided Hexion Quimica Industria, the Company’s Brazilian subsidiary, with notice of an environmental assessment in the amount of 12 Brazilian reais. The assessment related to alleged environmental damages to the Paranagua Bay caused in November 2004 from an explosion on a shipping vessel carrying methanol purchased by the Company. The investigations performed by the public authorities have not identified any actions of the Company that contributed to or caused the accident. The Company responded to the assessment by filing a request to have it cancelled and by obtaining an injunction precluding execution of the assessment pending adjudication of the issue. In November 2010, the Court denied the Company’s request to cancel the assessment and lifted the injunction that had been issued. The Company responded to the ruling by filing an appeal in the State of Paraná Court of Appeals. In March 2012, the Company was informed that the Court of Appeals had denied the Company’s appeal, and on June 4, 2012 the Company filed appeals to the Superior Court of Justice and the Supreme Court of Brazil. In September 2016, the Superior Court of Justice decided that strict liability does not apply to administrative fines issued by environmental agencies and reversed the decision of the State of Paraná Court of Appeals. The Superior Court of Justice remanded the case back to the Court of Appeals to determine if the IAP met its burden of proving negligence by the Company. The Company continues to believe it has strong defenses against the validity of the assessment, and does not believe that a loss is probable. At December 31, 2016, the amount of the assessment, including tax, penalties, monetary correction and interest, is 52 Brazilian reais, or approximately $16.
EPA Risk Management Plan Inspection
In December 2013, the USEPA conducted an inspection at one of our U.S. manufacturing facilities, which identified alleged violations of USEPA’s Risk Management Plan regulations. The Company entered into a Consent Agreement and Final Order with USEPA effective September 22, 2016 that resolved the matter for a payment of less than $100,000.
Other Litigation
For a discussion of certain other legal contingencies, refer to Note 9 in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 4 - MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
This item is not applicable to the registrant.

PART II
(dollars in millions, except per share data, or as otherwise noted)
ITEM 5 - MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
There is no established public trading market for our common stock. As of March 1, 2017, 82,556,847 common shares were held by our direct parent, Hexion LLC.
In 2014, we declared dividends of less than $1 to be paid as and when needed to fund the compensation for the Board of Managers of Hexion Holdings, insurance premiums and other expenses. Other than dividends that we may declare from time to time to fund expenses as permitted under our ABL Facility and the indentures that govern our notes, we do not currently intend to declare any cash dividends on our common stock, and instead intend to retain earnings, if any, to fund future operations and to reduce our debt. The credit agreement that governs our ABL Facility and the indentures that govern our notes impose restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. Therefore, our ability to pay dividends on our common stock will depend on, among other things, our level of indebtedness at the time of the proposed dividend and whether we are in default under any of our debt instruments. Our future dividend policy will also depend on the requirements of any future financing agreements to which we may be a party and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, business opportunities, provision of applicable law and other factors that our board of directors may consider relevant. For a discussion of our cash resources and needs, see Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We have no compensation plans that authorize issuing our common stock to employees or non-employees. In addition, there have been no sales or repurchases of our equity securities during the past fiscal year. However, we and our direct and indirect parent companies have in the past issued, and may issue from time to time, equity awards that are denominated in or based upon the common units of our direct or ultimate parent to our employees and directors. As the awards were granted in exchange for service to us, these awards are included in our Consolidated Financial Statements. For a discussion of these equity plans, see Note 11 in Item 8 of Part II and Item 11 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Table of Contents

ITEM 6 - SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table presents our selected historical consolidated and combined financial data. The following information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified by reference to, our “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and our audited Consolidated Financial Statements, as well as the other financial information included elsewhere herein.
The consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2016 and 2015 and the consolidated statement of operations data as for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere herein. The consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 and the consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 have been derived from audited consolidated financial statements not included herein.
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(dollars in millions, except per share data)
Statements of Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
3,438

 
$
4,140

 
$
5,137

 
$
4,890

 
$
4,756

Cost of sales (1)
3,038

 
3,540

 
4,576

 
4,282

 
4,232

Gross profit
400

 
600

 
561

 
608

 
524

Selling, general and administrative expense
328

 
306

 
399

 
304

 
376

Gain on dispositions
(240
)
 

 

 

 

Asset impairments

 
6

 
5

 
181

 
23

Business realignment costs
55

 
16

 
47

 
21

 
35

Other operating expense (income), net
13

 
12

 
(8
)
 
1

 
11

Operating income
244

 
260

 
118

 
101

 
79

Interest expense, net
310

 
326

 
308

 
303

 
263

(Gain) loss on extinguishment of debt
(48
)
 
(41
)
 

 
6

 

Other non-operating (income) expense, net
(7
)
 
(3
)
 
32

 
2

 
(1
)
Loss from continuing operations before income tax and earnings from unconsolidated entities
(11
)
 
(22
)
 
(222
)
 
(210
)
 
(183
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
38

 
34

 
22

 
379

 
(410
)
(Loss) income from continuing operations before earnings from unconsolidated entities
(49
)
 
(56
)
 
(244
)
 
(589
)
 
227

Earnings from unconsolidated entities, net of taxes
11

 
17

 
20

 
17

 
19

Net (loss) income
(38
)
 
(39
)
 
(224
)
 
(572
)
 
246

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interest

 
(1
)
 
1

 
1

 
1

Net (loss) income attributable to Hexion Inc.
$
(38
)
 
$
(40
)
 
$
(223
)
 
$
(571
)
 
$
247

Dividends declared per common share
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
0.01

 
$
0.04

Cash Flows (used in) provided by :
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(20
)
 
$
213

 
$
(50
)
 
$
80

 
$
177

Investing activities
210

 
(155
)
 
(233
)
 
(150
)
 
(138
)
Financing activities
(235
)
 
24

 
69

 
52

 
(59
)
Balance Sheet Data (at end of period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
196

 
$
236

 
$
172

 
$
393

 
$
419

Short-term investments

 

 
7

 
7

 
5

Working capital (2)
146

 
283

 
422

 
570

 
672

Total assets
2,055

 
2,382

 
2,617

 
2,804

 
3,300

Total long-term debt
3,397

 
3,698

 
3,678

 
3,598

 
3,367

Total net debt (3)
3,346

 
3,593

 
3,655

 
3,374

 
3,071

Total liabilities
4,594

 
4,859

 
4,967

 
4,877

 
4,583

Total deficit
(2,539
)
 
(2,477
)
 
(2,350
)
 
(2,073
)
 
(1,283
)
(1)
Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2016 includes accelerated depreciation of $129 related primarily to facility rationalizations within the Epoxy, Phenolic and Coatings Resins segment.
(2)
Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities.
(3)
Net debt is defined as long-term debt (exclusive of unamortized deferred financing fees) plus short-term debt less cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments.


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Table of Contents

ITEM 7 - MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our results of operations and financial condition for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included elsewhere herein. The following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs, and which involve numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.” Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
Overview and Outlook
We are a large participant in the specialty chemicals industry, and a leading producer of adhesive and structural resins and coatings. Thermosets are a critical ingredient for virtually all paints, coatings, glues and other adhesives produced for consumer or industrial uses. We provide a broad array of thermosets and associated technologies and have significant market positions in all of the key markets that we serve.
Our products are used in thousands of applications and are sold into diverse markets, such as forest products, architectural and industrial paints, packaging, consumer products and automotive coatings, as well as higher growth markets, such as wind energy and electrical composites. Major industry sectors that we serve include industrial/marine, construction, consumer/durable goods, automotive, wind energy, aviation, electronics, architectural, civil engineering, repair/remodeling and oil and gas drilling. Key drivers for our business include general economic and industrial conditions, including housing starts, auto build rates and active oil and gas drilling rigs. In addition, due to the nature of our products and the markets we serve, competitor capacity constraints and the availability of similar products in the market may impact our results. As is true for many industries, our financial results are impacted by the effect on our customers of economic upturns or downturns, as well as by the impact on our own costs to produce, sell and deliver our products. Our customers use most of our products in their production processes. As a result, factors that impact their industries can and have significantly affected our results.
Through our worldwide network of strategically located production facilities we serve more than 4,200 customers in approximately 100 countries. Our global customers include large companies in their respective industries, such as 3M, Akzo Nobel, BASF, Bayer, Dow, Louisiana Pacific, Monsanto, Owens Corning, PPG Industries, Valspar and Weyerhaeuser.
Business Strategy
As a significant player in the specialty chemicals industry, we believe we have unique opportunities to strategically grow our business over the long term. We continue to develop new products with an emphasis on innovation and expanding our product solutions for our existing global customer base, while growing our businesses in potential high growth regions in the world, such as Asia-Pacific, Latin America, India and the Middle East. Through these growth strategies we strive to create shareholder value and generate solid operating cash flow.
Reportable Segments
Our business segments are based on the products that we offer and the markets that we serve. At December 31, 2016, we had two reportable segments: Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins and Forest Products Resins. A summary of the major products of our reportable segments follows:
 
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins: epoxy specialty resins, phenolic encapsulated substrates, versatic acids and derivatives, basic epoxy resins and intermediates, phenolic specialty resins and molding compounds, polyester resins, acrylic resins and vinylic resins
 
Forest Products Resins: forest products resins and formaldehyde applications
2016 Overview
Following are highlights from our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015:
 
2016
 
2015
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Statements of Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
3,438

 
$
4,140

 
$
(702
)
 
(17
)%
Gross profit (1)
400

 
600

 
(200
)
 
(33
)%
Operating income
244

 
260

 
(16
)
 
(6
)%
Loss before income tax
(11
)
 
(22
)
 
11

 
50
 %
Net loss
(38
)
 
(39
)
 
1

 
3
 %
Segment EBITDA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
$
258

 
$
307

 
$
(49
)
 
(16
)%
Forest Products Resins
240

 
233

 
7

 
3
 %
Corporate and Other
(65
)
 
(74
)
 
9

 
(12
)%
Total
$
433

 
$
466

 
$
(33
)
 
(7
)%
(1)
Gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2016 includes the negative impact of $129 of accelerated depreciation related primarily to facility rationalizations within our Epoxy, Phenolic and Coatings Resins segment.


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Table of Contents

Net Sales—Net sales in 2016 were $3.4 billion, a decrease of 17% compared with $4.1 billion in 2015. The decline in net sales was primarily driven by continued lower oil and raw material prices, which has led to lower demand and volumes in our oilfield business and an overall reduction in selling prices across many of our businesses due to the pass through of raw material cost reductions to our customers. The absence of net sales from our PAC Business in the second half of 2016, due to the sale of this business in the second quarter of 2016, further contributed $177 to the overall decrease. Additionally, the continued economic downturn in Brazil negatively impacted volumes in our Latin American forest products resins business. These decreases were partially offset by overall increases in our epoxy specialty business, driven by increased demand in the Chinese and European wind energy markets in the first half of 2016. Lastly, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against most other currencies negatively impacted our net sales by 2%.
Net Loss—Net loss in 2016 was $38, an improvement of 3% as compared with a net loss of $39 in 2015. This improvement was primarily driven by $240 in gains on dispositions recognized in 2016 related to the sale of our PAC Business and HAI joint venture interest further discussed below, as well as a decrease in interest expense due to lower average debt levels in 2016. These decreases to net loss were largely offset by lower gross margin of $200, as well as increases in business realignment costs and selling, general and administrative expense. Lower gross margin was primarily driven by increased accelerated depreciation related to our Norco, LA facility closure and the indefinite idling of two manufacturing facilities in our oilfield business, as well as mark-to-market losses on pension and OPEB liabilities, which also negatively impacted selling, general and administrative expense. The increase in business realignment costs was largely attributable to the Norco, LA facility closure and the oilfield facility idlings mentioned above.
Segment EBITDA—In 2016, Segment EBITDA was $433, a decrease of 7% compared with $466 in 2015. The reduction in Segment EBITDA was primarily driven by volume decreases in our oilfield and base epoxy businesses and $23 due to the absence of the PAC Business and HA-International, LLC (“HAI”) from our results in the second half of 2016. These reductions were partially offset by overall volume growth in our epoxy specialty and versatic acid and derivatives businesses, cost efficiencies related to our new North American formaldehyde plants and the rationalization at our Norco, LA manufacturing facility and increases in raw materiality productivity across many of our businesses. Additionally, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against most other currencies negatively impacted our Segment EBITDA results by 2%.
Sale of PAC Business—In May 2016, we completed the sale of our PAC Business to Synthomer plc (the “Buyer”) for a purchase price of approximately $226, less approximately $6 relating to liabilities, net of cash and estimated working capital, that transferred to the Buyer as part of the purchase agreement.
Sale of HAI Joint Venture Interest—In May 2016, we sold our 50% interest in HAI, a joint venture serving the North American foundry industry, to our joint venture partner HA-USA, Inc for a purchase price of $136, which includes $2 representing our 50% share of HAI’s cash balance at closing. HAI continues a strategic sourcing arrangement with our Louisville, KY site.
Restructuring and Cost Reduction Programs—During 2016, we have achieved $31 in cost savings related to our ongoing productivity and cost reduction programs. As of December 31, 2016, we have approximately $25 of total in-process cost savings related to these programs, the majority of which we expect to be achieved over the next 12 to 18 months.
Norco, LA Facility Rationalization—One of the above identified cost reduction projects was a facility rationalization at our Norco, LA manufacturing facility, where we ceased production during the second quarter of 2016 and have finalized agreements to exit the site in 2017. We expect this facility rationalization to generate approximately $20 in annual cost savings. As a result, we incurred $106 in accelerated depreciation related to shortening the estimated useful lives of certain long-lived assets related to this facility and the acceleration of a conditional asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) related to certain contractually obligated future demolition, decontamination and repair costs associated with this facility. We expect that our existing liabilities related to this closure will result in cash outflows over the next approximately 12 months.
Growth Initiatives—In February 2016, we completed construction of a new formaldehyde plant in Luling, LA. The completion of this facility, combined with the 2015 expansions of our forest products resins manufacturing facility in Curitiba, Brazil and our formaldehyde manufacturing facility in Geismar, LA, provides us with additional capacity to support expected long-term growth in these businesses and regions. We also added additional capacity in China to support increased demand in our epoxy specialty business. Further, we continue to focus on new product development and have taken steps to improve our analytical and product development services for our global grid, such as our recent announcement of the construction of a new research and development facility in Germany.
2017 Refinancing Transactions—In February 2017, we issued $485 aggregate principal amount of New First Lien Notes and $225 aggregate principal amount of New Senior Secured Notes. We will use the net proceeds from these notes, together with cash on our balance sheet, to redeem all of our outstanding Old Senior Secured Notes. We also amended and restated our ABL Facility, which effectively extended the maturity date of the facility from March 2018 to December 2021 and reduced the existing commitments under the facility from $400 to $350.

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Table of Contents

2017 Outlook
During 2017, we continue to expect strong demand in our North American forest products resins business due to ongoing modest growth in U.S. housing starts. Additionally, we expect the incremental capacity created by the newly completed formaldehyde plants in North America to drive volume increases in this business in 2017. We also expect improvements in our Latin American forest products resins business due to modest economic recovery in Brazil.
We expect our phenolic resins business to continue to benefit from the acquisition of the remaining 50% of our previous Chinese joint venture, as well as from the introduction of new products into the China market. Additionally, we expect modestly lower overall demand in our epoxy specialty business in 2017 due to a destocking of wind blades in China. We anticipate improvement in the second half of 2017 as demand increases. Further, while we anticipate volumes in our versatic acid and derivatives businesses to continue to improve, our results in this business will be negatively impacted by the absence of insurance recoveries, as our ongoing supplier disruption insurance claim was closed in late 2016. Lastly, we expect our base epoxy business to improve in 2017 due to our restructuring initiatives, but remain below historical levels of profitability.
We expect modest growth in our oilfield business in 2017 due to increased drilling activity and an expected increase in oil prices relative to 2016. We also expect lower than normal raw material prices to continue in 2017, as a substantial number of our raw material inputs are petroleum-based and their prices fluctuate with the price of oil.
Lastly, we anticipate that weaker global currencies could continue to pressure our results.
Shared Services Agreement
In October 2010, we entered into a shared services agreement with MPM (which, from October 1, 2010 through October 24, 2014, was a subsidiary of Hexion Holdings), as amended in October 2014 (the “Shared Services Agreement”), pursuant to which we provide to MPM, and MPM provides to us, certain services, including, but not limited to, executive and senior management, administrative support, human resources, information technology support, accounting, finance, legal and procurement services. The Shared Services Agreement was renewed for one year starting in October 2016 and is subject to termination by either the Company or MPM, without cause, on not less than 30 days’ written notice, and expires in October 2017 (subject to one-year renewals every year thereafter; absent contrary notice from either party). The Shared Services Agreement establishes certain criteria upon which the costs of such services are allocated between us and MPM and requires that the Shared Services Steering Committee formed under the agreement meet no less than annually to evaluate and determine an equitable allocation percentage. The allocation percentage for 2016 was 56% for us and 44% for MPM, as compared to 2015, which was 54% for us and 46% for MPM. Each year, the parties review and adjust the level and extent of services provided to meet the current needs of both companies.
The Shared Services Agreement has resulted in significant synergies for us, including shared services and logistics optimization, best-of-source contractual terms, procurement savings, regional site rationalization and administrative and overhead savings. We expect the majority of these savings to continue, and do not expect the 2014 amendment to have a material effect on our business, results of operations or liquidity.
Matters Impacting Comparability of Results
Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company, its majority-owned subsidiaries in which minority shareholders hold no substantive participating rights and variable interest entities in which we have a controlling financial interest. Intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Dispositions of PAC Business and HAI Joint Venture Interest
As discussed above, during the second quarter of 2016, we completed the sales of both our PAC Business and our 50% interest in the HAI joint venture. As a result, when comparing 2016 to 2015, our results in the second half of 2016 exclude these divested businesses, while our results in the second half of 2015 include net sales of $177 and Segment EBITDA of $23 related to these divested businesses.
Raw Material Prices
Raw materials comprised approximately 70% of our cost of sales in 2016. The three largest raw materials used in our production processes are phenol, methanol and urea. These materials represented approximately 40% of our total raw material costs in 2016. Fluctuations in energy costs, such as volatility in the price of crude oil and related petrochemical products, as well as the cost of natural gas, have caused volatility in our raw material costs and utility costs. In 2016, the average price of phenol remained flat, and the average prices of methanol and urea decreased by approximately 30% and 27%, respectively, as compared to 2015. In 2015, the average prices of phenol, methanol and urea decreased by approximately 28%, 22% and 15%, respectively, as compared to 2014. The impact of passing through raw material price changes to customers can result in significant variances in sales comparisons from year to year.
We expect long-term raw material cost volatility to continue because of price movements of key feedstocks. To help mitigate raw material volatility, we have purchase and sale contracts and commercial arrangements with many of our vendors and customers that contain periodic price adjustment mechanisms. Due to differences in timing of the pricing trigger points between our sales and purchase contracts, there is often a “lead-lag” impact. In many cases this “lead-lag” impact can negatively impact our margins in the short term in periods of rising raw material prices and positively impact them in the short term in periods of falling raw material prices.

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Table of Contents

Supplier Disruption
From late 2014 through July 2015, our European versatic acids and dispersions businesses were negatively impacted by a supplier disruption. We recorded insurance recoveries of $19 and $35 during 2016 and 2015, respectively, for a portion of these losses, and our insurance claim is now closed. The disruption had negative impacts on Segment EBITDA for our Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins segment of $19 and $25 in 2016 and 2015, respectively. Timing differences between the negative impacts of the disruption and the related insurance recoveries can result in variances in Segment EBITDA comparisons from year to year.
Other Comprehensive Income
Our other comprehensive income is significantly impacted by foreign currency translation, and also impacted by defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit adjustments to a lesser degree. The impact of foreign currency translation is driven by the translation of assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries which are denominated in functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar. The primary assets and liabilities driving the adjustments are cash and cash equivalents; accounts receivable; inventory; property, plant and equipment; accounts payable; pension and other postretirement benefit obligations and certain intercompany loans payable and receivable. The primary currencies in which these assets and liabilities are denominated are the euro, Brazilian real, Canadian dollar and Australian dollar. The impact of defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit adjustments is primarily driven by unrecognized prior service cost related to our defined benefit and other postretirement benefit plans, as well as the subsequent amortization of these amounts from accumulated other comprehensive income in periods following the initial recording of such amounts.
Pension and OPEB MTM Adjustments
Under our accounting policy related to the recognition of gains and losses for pension and other non-pension postretirement benefit (“OPEB”) plans, upon the annual remeasurement of our pension and OPEB plans in the fourth quarter, or on an interim basis as triggering events warrant, we immediately recognize gains and losses as a mark-to-market (“MTM”) gain or loss through net income. The largest component of our pension and OPEB expense typically relates to these MTM adjustments, which were recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended, December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 as follows:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
MTM Loss (Gain)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cost of sales
 
$
19

 
$
(8
)
 
$
45

Selling, general and administrative expense
 
15

 
(5
)
 
57

Total
 
$
34

 
$
(13
)
 
$
102

In 2016, an overall decrease in the discount rates used to calculate our pension and OPEB liabilities at December 31, 2016 resulted in a increase in unrealized losses of $47, from an unrealized gain of $13 in 2015 to an unrealized loss of $34 in 2016. The change in unrealized losses increased Cost of sales by $27 and Selling, general and administrative expense by $20.
In 2015, an overall increase in the discount rates used to calculate our pension and OPEB liabilities at December 31, 2015 resulted in a decrease in unrealized losses of $115, from an unrealized loss of $102 in 2014 to an unrealized gain of $13 in 2015. The change in unrealized losses decreased Cost of sales by $53 and Selling, general and administrative expense by $62.


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Table of Contents

Results of Operations
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net sales
$
3,438

 
$
4,140

 
$
5,137

Cost of sales
2,909

 
3,538

 
4,576

Accelerated depreciation
129

 
2

 

Gross profit
400

 
600

 
561

Gross profit as a percentage of net sales
12
%
 
14
%
 
11
%
Selling, general and administrative expense
328

 
306

 
399

Gain on dispositions
(240
)
 

 

Asset impairments

 
6

 
5

Business realignment costs
55

 
16

 
47

Other operating expense (income), net
13

 
12

 
(8
)
Operating income
244

 
260

 
118

Operating income as a percentage of net sales
7
%
 
6
%
 
2
%
Interest expense, net
310

 
326

 
308

Gain on extinguishment of debt
(48
)
 
(41
)
 

Other non-operating (income) expense, net
(7
)
 
(3
)
 
32

Total non-operating expense
255

 
282

 
340

Loss before income tax and earnings from unconsolidated entities
(11
)
 
(22
)
 
(222
)
Income tax expense
38

 
34

 
22

Loss before earnings from unconsolidated entities
(49
)
 
(56
)
 
(244
)
Earnings from unconsolidated entities, net of taxes
11

 
17

 
20

Net loss
(38
)
 
(39
)
 
(224
)
Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interest

 
(1
)
 
1

Net loss attributable to Hexion Inc.
$
(38
)
 
$
(40
)
 
$
(223
)
Other comprehensive loss
$
(24
)
 
$
(88
)
 
$
(57
)
Net Sales
In 2016, net sales decreased by $702, or 17%, compared to 2015. Pricing negatively impacted net sales by $373 due to raw material price decreases passed through to customers in most of our businesses. The disposition of our PAC Business in the second quarter of 2016 negatively impacted net sales by $177. Volume decreases negatively impacted net sales by $82, and were primarily driven by reduced volumes in our oilfield business, which were the result of lower natural gas and oil drilling activity caused by lower oil prices. Also contributing to the overall volume decrease were volume reductions in our Latin American forest products resins business due to the continued economic downturn in Brazil. These decreases were partially offset by higher volumes in our phenolic resins business, driven by the acquisition of the remaining 50% of our previous Chinese joint venture and increased demand within certain industrial markets in North America, as well as higher volumes in our epoxy specialty business, which were primarily driven by strong demand in the Chinese and European wind energy markets in the first half of 2016. In addition, foreign currency translation negatively impacted net sales by $70, primarily as a result of the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Brazilian real, Chinese yuan and euro in 2016 compared to 2015.
In 2015, net sales decreased by $997, or 19%, compared to 2014. Volume decreases negatively impacted net sales by $255 and were primarily driven by reduced volumes in our oilfield business, which was the result of lower natural gas and oil drilling activity caused by a decrease in oil prices throughout 2015. Also contributing to the overall volume decrease were lower volumes in our versatic acids business and within certain product lines in our base epoxy and dispersions businesses. Decreases in volumes in our versatic acids and dispersions businesses were primarily driven by the impact of a supplier disruption in our European versatic acids business, and decreases in volumes in our base epoxy business were primarily due to a customer plant closure in late 2014 and operational issues at certain manufacturing facilities. These decreases were partially offset by volume increases in our epoxy specialty business, which were driven by increasing demand in the China wind energy market, as well as volume increases in our North American forest products resins business, driven by increases in U.S. housing construction. Pricing had a negative impact of $307 due to raw material price decreases passed through to customers in most of our businesses, as well as competitive pricing pressures in our oilfield business. In addition, foreign currency translation negatively impacted net sales by $435, primarily as a result of the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the euro, Brazilian real and Canadian dollar in 2015 compared to 2014.
    

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Table of Contents

Gross Profit
Gross profit decreased $200 in 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to an increase in accelerated depreciation of $127 related to the rationalization of our Norco, LA facility and the indefinite idling of two manufacturing facilities in our oilfield business, as well as an increase of $27 related to MTM adjustments on pension and OPEB liabilities (losses of $19 in 2016 and gains of $8 in 2015). Gross profit as a percentage of net sales decreased by 2%, primarily due to the impact of the accelerated depreciation and MTM adjustments discussed above, which had a combined negative impact of 4%. These decreases were partially offset by favorable raw material deflation and raw material productivity initiatives.

Gross profit increased $39 in 2015 compared to 2014, largely due to the impact of the MTM adjustments on pension and OPEB liabilities discussed above (gains of $8 in 2015 and losses of $45 in 2014). Gross profit as a percentage of net sales increased by 3%, primarily due to favorable raw material deflation and raw material productivity initiatives and also due to the impact of the MTM adjustments on pension and OPEB liabilities, which outpaced the negative impact of competitive pricing pressures discussed above.
Operating Income
Operating income decreased by $16 in 2016 compared to 2015. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in gross profit of $200 discussed above. Also contributing to the decrease in operating income was a increase in business realignment costs of $39 and increases in selling, general and administrative expense of $22. The increase in business realignment costs was largely due to one-time closure expenses related to our Norco, LA facility rationalization, primarily consisting of charges related to the early termination of certain contracts for utilities, site services and raw materials. The increase in selling, general and administrative expense was due primarily to the impact of the MTM adjustments on pension and OPEB liabilities (losses of $15 in 2016 and gains of $5 in 2015), costs related to the sale of our PAC Business and lower insurance recoveries in 2016 related to the supplier disruption in our European versatic acids business, partially offset by lower compensation and benefits expense driven by our recent cost savings and productivity actions. These negative impacts to operating income were partially offset by gains of $240 in the second quarter 2016 related to the sale of our PAC Business and our ownership interest in the HAI joint venture (see Note 12 in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), as well as reductions of $6 in asset impairment charges.
Operating income increased by $142 in 2015 compared to 2014. The increase was primarily due to decreases in selling, general and administrative expense of $93 and business realignment costs of $31 compared to 2014. Selling, general and administrative expense decreased primarily due to the impact of the MTM adjustments on pension and OPEB liabilities discussed above (gains of $5 in 2015 and losses of $57 in 2014), as well as lower compensation and benefits expense driven by our recent cost savings and productivity actions and lower professional services costs. The decrease in business realignment costs was due primarily to a decrease in costs related to the Company’s restructuring and cost optimization programs, as well as a decrease environmental remediation costs at certain formerly owned locations. These positive impacts to operating income were partially offset by other operating expense (income), net, which increased by $20 from income of $8 to an expense of $12, compared to 2014, due to an increase in realized and unrealized foreign currency transaction losses, partially offset by a gain of $5 on a step acquisition (see Note 13 in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). Additionally, gross profit increased by $39, as discussed above.
Non-Operating Expense
In 2016, total non-operating expense decreased by $27 compared to 2015, primarily due to a decrease in interest expense of $16 driven by lower average debt levels, as well as an increase of $7 in gains on debt buyback transactions and an increase of $4 in realized and unrealized foreign currency transaction gains.
In 2015, total non-operating expense decreased by $58 compared to 2014, primarily due to a $41 gain on debt extinguishment that occurred in 2015, as well as a decrease in realized and unrealized foreign currency transaction losses. These items were partially offset by an increase of $18 in interest expense driven by higher average debt levels.
Income Tax Expense
In 2016, income tax expense increased by $4 compared to 2015. In 2016, the Company recognized income tax expense of $38 primarily as a result of income from certain foreign operations. Losses in the United States created a deferred income tax benefit which was completely offset by an increase to the related valuation allowance.
In 2015, income tax expense increased by $12 compared to 2014. In 2015, the Company recognized income tax expense of $34 primarily as a result of income from certain foreign operations. Losses in the United States created a deferred income tax benefit which was completely offset by an increase to the related valuation allowance.

Other Comprehensive Loss
In 2016, other comprehensive loss of $24 relates to the $23 negative impact of foreign currency translation, primarily driven by the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Chinese yuan and the euro, and to $1 of amortization of prior service costs on defined benefit pension and postretirement benefits.
In 2015, foreign currency translation negatively impacted other comprehensive income by $88, primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the euro, Brazilian real and Canadian dollar.

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Table of Contents

In 2014, foreign currency translation negatively impacted other comprehensive loss by $61 primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Australian dollar, Brazilian real, Canadian dollar and the euro. For the year ended December 31, 2014, pension and OPEB adjustments positively impacted other comprehensive income by $4, primarily due to prior service benefit recorded related to certain plan amendments.
Results of Operations by Segment
Following are net sales and Segment EBITDA (earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization) by reportable segment. Segment EBITDA is defined as EBITDA adjusted for certain non-cash items, other income and expenses and discontinued operations. Segment EBITDA is the primary performance measure used by our senior management, the chief operating decision-maker and the board of directors to evaluate operating results and allocate capital resources among segments. Segment EBITDA is also the profitability measure used to set management and executive incentive compensation goals. Segment EBITDA should not be considered a substitute for net income (loss) or other results reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Segment EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
 
Year Ended December 31,

2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net Sales(1):
 
 
 
 
 
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
$
2,094

 
$
2,589

 
$
3,277

Forest Products Resins
1,344

 
1,551

 
1,860

Total
$
3,438

 
$
4,140

 
$
5,137

 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment EBITDA:


 
 
 
 
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
$
258

 
$
307

 
$
290

Forest Products Resins
240

 
233

 
255

Corporate and Other
(65
)
 
(74
)
 
(83
)
Total
$
433

 
$
466

 
$
462

(1)
Intersegment sales are not significant and, as such, are eliminated within the selling segment.

2016 vs. 2015 Segment Results
Following is an analysis of the percentage change in sales by segment from 2015 to 2016:
 
Volume
 
Price/Mix
 
Currency
Translation
 
Impact of Dispositions
 
Total
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
(2
)%
 
(9
)%
 
(1
)%
 
(7
)%
 
(19
)%
Forest Products Resins
(1
)%
 
(10
)%
 
(2
)%
 
 %
 
(13
)%
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
Net sales in 2016 decreased by $495, or 19%, compared to 2015. Pricing negatively impacted net sales by $221 due primarily to raw material price decreases passed through to customers in most of our businesses. The disposition of our PAC Business in the second quarter of 2016 negatively impacted net sales by $177. Lower volumes negatively impacted net sales by $64, which were primarily driven by continued decreases in volumes within our oilfield business, as well as volume decreases in our base epoxy business due to increased competition. These decreases were partially offset by higher volumes in our phenolic resins business due to the acquisition of the remaining 50% of our previous Chinese joint venture and increased demand within certain industrial markets in North America, as well as overall higher volumes in our epoxy specialty business, which were primarily driven by strong demand in the Chinese and European wind energy markets in the first half of 2016. Foreign exchange translation negatively impacted net sales by $33, primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Chinese yuan and the euro in 2016 compared to 2015.
Segment EBITDA in 2016 decreased by $49 to $258 compared to 2015. The impact of the disposition of our PAC Business and HAI joint venture interest in the second quarter of 2016 contributed to $23 of this decrease. The remaining decrease was primarily driven by the volume declines in our oilfield and base epoxy businesses discussed above. These decreases were partially offset by the growth in our epoxy specialty business discussed above, combined with margin expansion in our versatic acids business and cost reductions related to the rationalization at our Norco, LA manufacturing facility.
Forest Products Resins
Net sales in 2016 decreased by $207, or 13%, when compared to 2015. Pricing negatively impacted net sales by $152, which was primarily due to raw material price decreases contractually passed through to customers across many of our businesses. Lower volumes negatively impacted net sales by $18, and were primarily driven by weaker demand in our Latin American forest products resins business as a result of the continued economic downturn in Brazil. These decreases were partially offset by volume increases in certain industrial markets within our European forest products business. Foreign exchange translation negatively impacted net sales by $37, primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Brazilian real, Canadian dollar and the euro in 2016 compared to 2015.

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Table of Contents

Segment EBITDA in 2016 increased by $7 to $240 compared to 2015. This increase was primarily due to increased volumes and cost efficiencies associated with our new North American formaldehyde plants, as well as increased raw material productivity. These increases were partially offset by the volume reductions in our Latin American forest products resins business discussed above.
Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other is primarily corporate, general and administrative expenses that are not allocated to the segments, such as shared service and administrative functions, unallocated foreign exchange gains and losses and legacy company costs not allocated to continuing segments. Corporate and Other charges decreased by $9 to $65 compared to 2015, due primarily to lower compensation and benefits expense driven by our recent cost savings actions.
 2015 vs. 2014 Segment Results
The table below provides additional detail of the percentage change in sales by segment from 2014 to 2015:
 
Volume
 
Price/Mix
 
Currency
Translation
 
 
Total
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
(7
)%
 
(6
)%
 
(8
)%
 
 
(21
)%
Forest Products Resins
(1
)%
 
(6
)%
 
(10
)%
 
 
(17
)%
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins

Net sales in 2015 decreased by $688, or 21%, compared to 2014. Lower volumes negatively impacted net sales by $232, which were primarily driven by decreased volumes within our oilfield business, as well as volume decreases related to our versatic acids business and certain products within our base epoxy and dispersions businesses. These decreases were partially offset by higher volumes in our epoxy specialty business. Volume decreases in our oilfield business were a result of reduced natural gas and oil drilling activity as a result of lower oil prices. Decreases in volumes in our versatic acids and dispersions businesses were primarily driven by the impact of a supplier disruption in our European versatic acids business and decreases in volumes in our base epoxy business were primarily due to a customer plant closure in late 2014 and operational issues at certain manufacturing facilities. Increases in volumes in our epoxy specialty business were driven by strong demand in the China wind energy market. Pricing had a negative impact of $193, which was primarily due to raw material price decreases passed through to customers, as well as unfavorable product mix and competitive pricing pressures in our oilfield business. Foreign exchange translation negatively impacted net sales by $263, primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the euro in 2015 compared to 2014.

Segment EBITDA in 2015 increased by $17 to $307 compared to 2014. This increase is primarily due to strong volume growth in our epoxy specialty business discussed above, as well as overall raw material price deflation. These increases more than offset the declines in our oilfield business and unfavorable foreign exchange impacts discussed above. On a constant currency basis, Segment EBITDA increased by 16%.
Forest Products Resins
    
Net sales in 2015 decreased by $309, or 17%, when compared to 2014. The primary driver of this decrease was foreign exchange translation, which negatively impacted net sales by $172, primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Brazilian real, Canadian dollar and the euro in 2015 compared to 2014. Pricing had a negative impact of $114, which was primarily due to raw material price decreases passed through to customers and unfavorable product mix in our North American formaldehyde business. Lower volumes negatively impacted sales by $23, and were primarily driven by volume decreases in certain industrial markets within our North American formaldehyde business due to a reduction in natural gas and oil drilling activity, as well as volume decreases in our Latin American forest product resins business due to weakening demand in Brazil. These decreases were partially offset by volume increases in our North American forest products resins business driven by increases in U.S. housing construction.
Segment EBITDA in 2015 decreased by $22 to $233 compared to 2014. This decrease is primarily due to the negative impact of foreign exchange translation and volume decreases in our North American formaldehyde and Latin American forest product resins businesses discussed above. These decreases were partially offset by the volume increases in our North American forest products resin business discussed above, as well as increases in raw material productivity. On a constant currency basis, Segment EBITDA increased by 2%.
Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other is primarily corporate, general and administrative expenses that are not allocated to the segments, such as shared service and administrative functions, unallocated foreign exchange gains and losses and legacy company costs not allocated to continuing segments. Corporate and Other charges decreased by $9 to $74 compared to 2014, due primarily to lower compensation and benefits expense driven by our recent cost savings actions, as well as the impact of the strengthening of the U.S. dollar.

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Table of Contents

Reconciliation of Net Loss to Segment EBITDA:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net loss
$
(38
)
 
$
(39
)
 
$
(224
)
Income tax expense
38

 
34

 
22

Interest expense, net
310

 
326

 
308

Depreciation and amortization
131

 
137

 
144

Accelerated depreciation
129

 
2

 

EBITDA
$
570

 
$
460

 
$
250

Items not included in Segment EBITDA:
 
 
 
 
 
Asset impairments
$

 
$
6

 
$
5

Business realignment costs
55

 
16

 
47

Realized and unrealized foreign currency (gains) losses
(11
)
 
10

 
32

Gain on dispositions
(240
)
 

 

Gain on extinguishment of debt
(48
)
 
(41
)
 

Unrealized losses (gains) on pension and OPEB plan liabilities
34

 
(13
)
 
102

Other
73

 
28

 
26

Total adjustments
(137
)
 
6

 
212

Segment EBITDA
$
433

 
$
466

 
$
462

 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment EBITDA:
 
 
 
 
 
Epoxy, Phenolic and Coating Resins
$
258

 
$
307

 
$
290

Forest Products Resins
240

 
233

 
255

Corporate and Other
(65
)
 
(74
)
 
(83
)
Total
$
433

 
$
466

 
$
462

 Items Not Included in Segment EBITDA
Not included in Segment EBITDA are certain non-cash items and other income and expenses. For 2016, these other items primarily included certain professional fees related to strategic projects and expenses from retention programs. For 2015, these other items primarily included expenses from retention programs, certain professional fees related to strategic projects and management fees, partially offset by gains on the disposal of assets and a gain on a step acquisition. For 2014, these items primarily included expenses from retention programs, partially offset by gains on the disposal of assets.
Business realignment costs for 2016 primarily included costs related to the rationalization at our Norco, LA manufacturing facility and costs related to certain in-process cost reduction programs. Business realignment costs for 2015 primarily included costs related to certain in-process cost reduction programs. Business realignment costs for 2014 primarily included expenses from the Company’s newly implemented restructuring and cost optimization programs, as well as costs for environmental remediation at certain formerly owned locations.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
We are a highly leveraged company. Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flows generated from operations and availability under our ABL Facility. Our primary liquidity requirements are interest, working capital and capital expenditures.
 
At December 31, 2016, we had $3,504 of outstanding debt and $511 in liquidity consisting of the following:

$179 of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents (of which $151 is maintained in foreign jurisdictions);
$299 of borrowings available under our ABL Facility ($334 borrowing base less $35 of outstanding letters of credit); and
$33 of time drafts and borrowings available under credit facilities at certain international subsidiaries.
Our net working capital (defined as accounts receivable and inventories less accounts payable) at December 31, 2016 and 2015 was $309 and $356, respectively. A summary of the components of our net working capital as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 is as follows:
 
December 31, 2016
 
% of LTM Net Sales
 
December 31, 2015
 
% of LTM Net Sales
Accounts receivable
$
390

 
12
 %
 
$
428


11
 %
Inventories
287

 
9
 %
 
279


7
 %
Accounts payable
(368
)
 
(11
)%
 
(351
)

(9
)%
Net working capital (1)
$
309

 
10
 %
 
$
356

 
9
 %
(1)
The components of net working capital and percentage of LTM net sales at both December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 exclude net working capital and net sales related to the PAC Business.

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Table of Contents

The decrease in net working capital of $47 from December 31, 2015 was the result of a decrease of $38 in accounts receivable and an increase of $17 in accounts payable, which outpaced an increase of $8 in inventory. The decrease in accounts receivable was primarily due to higher efficiency in collections at the end of 2016, lower sales volumes and pricing decreases due to decreases in raw material costs. The increases in accounts payable were primarily driven by the timing of vendor payments at the end of 2016. In addition, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against other currencies further contributed to decreases in net working capital. To minimize the impact of net working capital on cash flows, we continue to review inventory safety stock levels, focus on receivable collections by offering incentives to customers to encourage early payment or accelerating receipts through the sale of receivables and negotiate with vendors to contractually extend payment terms whenever possible.
We periodically borrow from the ABL Facility to support our short-term liquidity requirements, particularly when net working capital requirements increase in response to seasonality of our volumes. As of December 31, 2016, there were no outstanding borrowings under the ABL Facility.
2017 Refinancing Transactions
On February 8, 2017, we issued $485 aggregate principal amount of New First Lien Notes and $225 aggregate principal amount of New Senior Secured Notes. Upon the closing of these offerings, we satisfied and discharged our obligations under the Old Senior Secured Notes by depositing the net proceeds from these offerings, together with cash on our balance sheet, with the trustee for the Old Senior Secured Notes for the purpose of redeeming all of our outstanding Old Senior Secured Notes, which redemption will occur on March 10, 2017.
In December 2016, we amended and restated the ABL Facility, with modifications to, among other things, permit the refinancing of the Old Senior Secured Notes. In connection with the issuance of the new notes in February 2017, certain lenders under the ABL Facility provided extended revolving facility commitments in an aggregate principal amount of $350 with a maturity date of December 5, 2021 (subject to early maturity triggers), the existing commitments were terminated and the size of the ABL Facility was reduced from $400 to $350.
2016 Debt Transactions

During 2016, we repurchased $290 of our Old Senior Secured Notes on the open market for cash of $240. These transactions resulted in a gain of $48, which represents the difference between the carrying value of the repurchased debt and the cash paid for the repurchases, less the proportionate amount of unamortized deferred financing fees and debt discounts that were written off in conjunction with the repurchases.
2017 Outlook
The following factors will impact 2017 cash flows:
Interest and Income Taxes: We expect cash outflows in 2017 related to interest payments on our debt of approximately $300 and income tax payments between $25 and $35.
Capital Spending: Capital spending in 2017 is expected to be between $100 and $110, a significant decrease from 2016 due to the completion of large strategic growth projects in 2016, as well as our recent divestitures and restructuring activities at certain facilities.
Working Capital: We anticipate working capital to increase slightly during 2017, as compared to 2016. During the year, we expect an increase in the first half and a decrease in the second half, consistent with historical trends.
We plan to fund these outflows with available cash and cash equivalents, cash from operations and, if necessary, through available borrowings under our ABL Facility. Based on our liquidity position as of December 31, 2016, and projections of operating cash flows in 2017, we believe we have the ability to continue as a going concern for the next twelve months.
Depending upon market, pricing and other conditions, including the current state of the high yield bond market, as well as our cash balances and available liquidity, we or our affiliates, may seek to acquire additional notes or other indebtedness of the Company through open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, tender offers, redemption or otherwise, upon such terms and at such prices as we or our affiliates may determine (or as may be provided for in the indentures governing the notes), for cash or other consideration. We expect to have adequate liquidity to fund our ongoing operations for the next twelve months from cash on our balance sheet, cash flows provided by operating activities and amounts available for borrowings under our credit facilities.

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Table of Contents

Sources and Uses of Cash
Following are highlights from our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Sources (uses) of cash:
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(20
)
 
$
213

 
$
(50
)
Investing activities
210

 
(155
)
 
(233
)
Financing activities
(235
)
 
24

 
69

Effect of exchange rates on cash flow
(4
)
 
(10
)
 
(9
)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
$
(49
)
 
$
72

 
$
(223
)
Operating Activities
In 2016, operating activities used $20 of cash. Net loss of $38 included $34 of net non-cash income items, of which $240 related to gains on the HAI and PAC dispositions, $52 was for unrealized foreign currency gains and $48 related to gains on debt extinguishments. These items were partially offset by $131 of depreciation and amortization, $129 of accelerated depreciation, $34 of unrealized losses related to the remeasurement of our pension and OPEB liabilities and $2 related to deferred tax expense. Working capital provided $18, which was driven by decreases in accounts payable due to timing of vendor payments, partially offset by smaller decreases in accounts receivable and inventory due to sales volume decreases, lower raw material prices and increased efficiency in accounts receivable collections. Changes in other assets and liabilities and income taxes payable provided $34 due to the timing of when items were expensed versus paid, which primarily included interest expense, restructuring costs, employee retention programs, pension plan contributions and taxes.
In 2015, operating activities provided $213 of cash. Net loss of $39 included $97 of net non-cash expense items, of which $137 was for depreciation and amortization, $12 related to unrealized foreign currency losses, $8 was for non-cash asset impairments and accelerated depreciation and $7 related to deferred tax expense. These expense items were partially offset by a $41 gain on extinguishment of debt, $13 of unrealized gains related to the remeasurement of our pension and OPEB liabilities, a $5 gain on step acquisition and a $4 gain on sale of assets. Working capital provided $135, which was driven by decreases in accounts receivable and inventory due to sales volume decreases, lower raw material prices and increased efficiency in accounts receivable collections, which were partially offset by decreases in accounts payable, driven by volume decreases, lower raw material prices and the timing of vendor payments. Changes in other assets and liabilities and income taxes payable provided $20 due to the timing of when items were expensed versus paid, which primarily included interest expense, employee retention programs, pension plan contributions and taxes.
In 2014, operating activities used $50 of cash. Net loss of $224 included $270 of net non-cash expense items, of which $144 was for depreciation and amortization, $102 was for unrealized losses related to the remeasurement of our pension and OPEB liabilities, $46 related to unrealized foreign currency losses and $5 was for non-cash asset impairments. These items were partially offset by gains on the sale of certain assets of $16 and $6 of deferred tax benefit. Working capital used $127, which was driven by increases in inventory and accounts receivable due to sales volume increases, as well as decreases in accounts payable, driven by the timing of vendor payments. Changes in other assets and liabilities and income taxes payable provided $31 due to the timing of when items were expensed versus paid, which primarily included interest expense, employee retention programs, pension plan contributions and taxes.
Investing Activities
In 2016, investing activities provided $210, primarily driven by net cash proceeds of $356 related to the HAI and PAC dispositions and cash received on the HAI buyer’s note, as well as $5 in proceeds from the sale of other assets. These items were partially offset by capital expenditures (including capitalized interest) of $141 and increase of $9 in restricted cash.
In 2015, investing activities used $155. We spent $179 for capital expenditures (including capitalized interest), which primarily related to plant expansions, improvements and maintenance related capital expenditures. Additionally, we spent $7, net of cash received, on the step acquisition of a joint venture. The sale of certain assets and investments provided cash of $23, and the decrease in restricted cash provided $8.
In 2014, investing activities used $233. We spent $183 for capital expenditures, which primarily related to plant expansions and improvements, as well as maintenance-related capital expenditures. We also used cash of $52 to purchase a manufacturing facility in Shreveport, Louisiana, and $12 of cash was used to purchase a subsidiary of MPM. The loan extended to Superholdco Finance Corp. (“Finco”) resulted in a $50 decrease in cash, which was offset by the subsequent $50 repayment of the loan by Finco. Additionally, the sale of certain assets provided $20 of cash, and the change in restricted cash used $3.
Financing Activities
In 2016, financing activities used $235. Net short-term debt repayments were $22 and net long-term debt repayments were $212. Our long-term debt repayments primarily consisted of $240 used to repurchase a portion of our Old Senior Secured Notes on the open market. We also paid $1 of financing fees.

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Table of Contents

In 2015, financing activities provided $24. Net short-term debt repayments were $3, and net long term borrowings were $38, which primarily consisted of proceeds from the issuance of an aggregate principal amount of $315 of 10.00% First-Priority Senior Secured Notes due 2020 (“10.00% First Lien Notes”), which was partially offset by the redemption or repayment of approximately $40 of our outstanding Sinking Fund Debentures and all amounts outstanding on the ABL Facility at the time of the issuance. Additionally, we used $160 to repurchase a portion of our Old Senior Secured Notes on the open market. We also paid $11 of financing fees related to these debt transactions.
In 2014, financing activities provided $69. Net short-term debt borrowings were $21, which primarily consisted of net borrowings in certain foreign jurisdictions primarily to fund working capital requirements. Net long-term debt borrowings of $48 primarily consisted of net borrowings under our ABL Facility.

There are certain restrictions on the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to transfer funds to the parent in the form of cash dividends, loans or otherwise, which primarily arise as a result of certain foreign government regulations or as a result of restrictions within certain subsidiaries’ financing agreements limiting such transfers to the amounts of available earnings and profits or otherwise limit the amount of dividends that can be distributed. In either case, we have alternative methods to obtain cash from these subsidiaries in the form of intercompany loans and/or returns of capital in such instances where payment of dividends is limited to the extent of earnings and profits.
Covenant Compliance
The instruments that govern our indebtedness contain, among other provisions, restrictive covenants (and incurrence tests in certain cases) regarding indebtedness, dividends and distributions, mergers and acquisitions, asset sales, affiliate transactions, capital expenditures and, in the case of our ABL Facility, the maintenance of a financial ratio (depending on certain conditions). Payment of borrowings under the ABL Facility and our notes may be accelerated if there is an event of default as determined under the governing debt instrument. Events of default under the credit agreement governing our ABL Facility includes the failure to pay principal and interest when due, a material breach of representations or warranties, most covenant defaults, events of bankruptcy and a change of control. Events of default under the indentures governing our notes include the failure to pay principal and interest, a failure to comply with covenants, subject to a 30-day grace period in certain instances, and certain events of bankruptcy.
The indentures that govern our 6.625% First-Priority Senior Secured Notes, 10.00% First Lien Notes, New First Lien Notes, New Senior Secured Notes and 9.00% Second-Priority Senior Secured Notes (the “Secured Indentures”) contain an Adjusted EBITDA to Fixed Charges ratio incurrence test which may restrict our ability to take certain actions such as incurring additional debt or making acquisitions if we are unable to meet this ratio (measured on a last twelve months, or LTM, basis) of at least 2.0:1. The Adjusted EBITDA to Fixed Charges Ratio under the Secured Indentures is generally defined as the ratio of (a) Adjusted EBITDA to (b) net interest expense excluding the amortization or write-off of deferred financing costs, each measured on an LTM basis.
Our ABL Facility, which is subject to a borrowing base does not have any financial maintenance covenant other than a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.0 to 1.0 that would only apply if our availability under the ABL Facility at any time is less than the greater of (a) $35 and (b) 12.5% of the lesser of the borrowing base and the total ABL Facility commitments at such time. The fixed charge coverage ratio under the credit agreement governing the ABL Facility is generally defined as the ratio of (a) Adjusted EBITDA minus non-financed capital expenditures and cash taxes to (b) debt service plus cash interest expense plus certain restricted payments, each measured for the four most recent quarters for which financial statements have been delivered. At December 31, 2016, our availability under the ABL Facility exceeded such levels; therefore, the minimum fixed charge coverage ratio did not apply. As of December 31, 2016, we were in compliance with all covenants that govern the ABL Facility. We believe that a default under the ABL Facility is not reasonably likely to occur in the foreseeable future.

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Outstanding Debt
Following is a summary of our cash and cash equivalents and outstanding debt at December 31, 2016, as adjusted for the 2017 Refinancing Transactions, and our cash and cash equivalents and outstanding debt at December 31, 2015:
 
As of December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
Actual
 
Adjustments
 
As Adjusted
 
Actual
Cash and cash equivalents
$
196

 
$
(15
)
 
$
181

 
$
236

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Debt:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ABL Facility
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Senior Secured Notes:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6.625% First-Priority Senior Secured Notes due 2020 (includes $3 and $4 of unamortized debt premium at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively)
1,553

 

 
1,553

 
1,554

10.00% First-Priority Senior Secured Notes due 2020
315

 

 
315

 
315

10.375% First-Priority Senior Secured Notes due 2022

 
485

 
485

 

8.875% Senior Secured Notes due 2018 (includes $1 and $2 of unamortized debt discount at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively)
706

 
(706
)
 

 
995

13.75% Senior Secured Notes due 2022

 
225

 
225

 

9.00% Second-Priority Senior Secured Notes due 2020
574

 

 
574

 
574

Debentures:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9.2% debentures due 2021
74

 

 
74

 
74

7.875% debentures due 2023
189

 

 
189

 
189

Other Borrowings:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Australia Term Loan Facility due 2017
51

 

 
51

 
32

Brazilian bank loans
40

 

 
40

 
47

Capital Leases
9

 

 
9

 
10

Other
31

 

 
31

 
39

Unamortized debt issuance costs
(38
)
 
(18
)
 
(56
)
 
(51
)
Total
$
3,504

 
$
(14
)
 
$
3,490

 
$
3,778

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as EBITDA adjusted for certain non-cash and certain non-recurring items and other adjustments calculated on a pro-forma basis, including the expected future cost savings from business optimization programs or other programs and the expected future impact of acquisitions, in each case as determined under the governing debt instrument. As we are highly leveraged, we believe that including the supplemental adjustments that are made to calculate Adjusted EBITDA provides additional information to investors about our ability to comply with our financial covenants and to obtain additional debt in the future. Adjusted EBITDA and Fixed Charges are not defined terms under U.S. GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure of financial condition, liquidity or profitability, and should not be considered as an alternative to net income (loss) determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP or operating cash flows determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Additionally, EBITDA is not intended to be a measure of free cash flow for management’s discretionary use, as it does not take into account certain items such as interest and principal payments on our indebtedness, depreciation and amortization expense (because we use capital assets, depreciation and amortization expense is a necessary element of our costs and ability to generate revenue), working capital needs, tax payments (because the payment of taxes is part of our operations, it is a necessary element of our costs and ability to operate), non-recurring expenses and capital expenditures. Fixed Charges under the Secured Indentures should not be considered an alternative to interest expense.

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Reconciliation of Last Twelve Months Net Loss to Adjusted EBITDA
The following table reconciles Net loss to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, and calculates the ratio of Adjusted EBITDA to Fixed Charges as calculated under certain of our indentures for the period presented:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2016
Net loss
$
(38
)
Interest expense, net
310

Income tax expense
38

Depreciation and amortization
131

Accelerated depreciation
129

EBITDA
570

Adjustments to EBITDA:
 
Gain on dispositions
(240
)
Gain on extinguishment of debt
(48
)
Business realignment costs (1)
55

Realized and unrealized foreign currency gains
(11
)
Unrealized losses on pension and OPEB plan liabilities (2)
34

Other (3)
77

Cost reduction programs savings (4)
25

Adjustment for PAC and HAI dispositions (5)
(28
)
Adjusted EBITDA
$
434

Pro forma fixed charges (6)
$
279

Ratio of Adjusted EBITDA to Fixed Charges (7)
1.56

(1)
Primarily represents costs related to the rationalization at our Norco, LA manufacturing facility, as well as headcount reduction expenses and plant rationalization costs related to cost reduction programs, termination costs and other costs associated with business realignments.
(2)
Represents non-cash losses resulting from pension and postretirement benefit plan liability remeasurements.
(3)
Primarily includes certain professional fees related to strategic projects, retention program costs, business optimization expenses and management fees.
(4)
Represents pro forma impact of in-process cost reduction programs savings. Cost reduction program savings represent the unrealized headcount reduction savings and plant rationalization savings related to cost reduction programs and other unrealized savings associated with the Company’s business realignments activities, and represent our estimate of the unrealized savings from such initiatives that would have been realized had the related actions been completed at the beginning of the period presented. The savings are calculated based on actual costs of exiting headcount and elimination or reduction of site costs.
(5)
Represents pro forma LTM Adjusted EBITDA impact of the PAC and HAI dispositions, which both occurred during the second quarter of 2016.
(6)
Reflects pro forma interest expense based on interest rates at December 31, 2016, as if the 2016 Debt Transactions had taken place at the beginning of the period.
(7)
The Company’s ability to incur additional indebtedness, among other actions, is restricted under the indentures governing certain notes, unless the Company has an Adjusted EBITDA to Fixed Charges ratio of 2.0 to 1.0. As of December 31, 2016, we did not satisfy this test. As a result, we are subject to restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness or to make investments; however, there are exceptions to these restrictions, including exceptions that permit indebtedness under the ABL Facility (available borrowings of which were $299 at December 31, 2016).
Contractual Obligations
The following table presents our contractual cash obligations at December 31, 2016. Our contractual cash obligations consist of legal commitments at December 31, 2016 that require us to make fixed or determinable cash payments, regardless of the contractual requirements of the specific vendor to provide us with future goods or services. This table does not include information about most of our recurring purchases of materials used in our production; our raw material purchase contracts do not meet this definition since they generally do not require fixed or minimum quantities. Contracts with cancellation clauses are not included, unless a cancellation would result in a major disruption to our business. For example, we have contracts for information technology support that are cancelable, but this support is essential to the operation of our business and administrative functions; therefore, amounts payable under these contracts are included. These contractual obligations are grouped in the same manner as they are classified in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in order to provide a better understanding of the nature of the obligations.

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Table of Contents

 
 
Payments Due By Year
Contractual Obligations
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022 and beyond
 
Total
Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchase obligations (1)
 
$
218

 
$
93

 
$
81

 
$
81

 
$
9

 
$
74

 
$
556

Interest on fixed rate debt obligations (4)
 
273

 
241

 
208

 
139

 
18

 
22

 
901

Interest on variable rate debt obligations (2)
 
8

 
1

 
1

 

 

 

 
10

Operating lease obligations
 
25

 
17

 
10

 
6

 
5

 
5

 
68

Funding of pension and other postretirement obligations (3)
 
23

 
23

 
35

 
31

 
31

 

 
143

Financing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Long-term debt, including current maturities (4)
 
105

 
712

 
5

 
2,442

 
77

 
189

 
3,530

Capital lease obligations
 
3

 
2

 
2

 
5

 

 
1

 
13

Total
 
$
655

 
$
1,089

 
$
342

 
$
2,704

 
$
140

 
$
291

 
$
5,221

(1)
Purchase obligations are comprised of the fixed or minimum amounts of goods and/or services under long-term contracts and assumes that certain contracts are terminated in accordance with their terms after giving the requisite notice which is generally two to three years for most of these contracts; however, under certain circumstances, some of these minimum commitment term periods could be further reduced which would significantly decrease these contractual obligations.
(2)
Based on applicable interest rates in effect at December 31, 2016.
(3)
Pension and other postretirement contributions have been included in the above table for the next five years. These amounts include estimated benefit payments to be made for unfunded foreign defined benefit pension plans as well as estimated contributions to our funded defined benefit plans. The assumptions used by our actuaries in calculating these projections includes a weighted average annual return on pension assets of approximately 4% for the years 2017 – 2021 and the continuation of current law and plan provisions. These estimated payments may vary based on the actual return on our plan assets or changes in current law or plan provisions. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information on our pension and postretirement obligations.
(4)
As adjusted for the 2017 Refinancing Transactions, our debt service obligations are as follows at December 31, 2016:
 
 
Payments Due By Year
Contractual Obligations
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022 and beyond
 
Total
Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest on fixed rate debt obligations
 
$
288

 
$
291

 
$
289

 
$
220

 
$
99

 
$
62

 
$
1,249

Financing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-affiliated long-term debt, including current maturities
 
105

 
5

 
5

 
2,442

 
77

 
899

 
3,533

Total
 
$
393

 
$
296

 
$
294

 
$
2,662

 
$
176

 
$
961

 
$
4,782

The table above excludes payments for income taxes and environmental obligations since, at this time, we cannot determine either the timing or the amounts of all payments beyond 2016. At December 31, 2016, we recorded unrecognized tax benefits and related interest and penalties of $116. We estimate that we will pay between $25 and $35 in 2017 for U.S. Federal, state and international income taxes. We expect non-capital environmental expenditures for 2017 through 2021 totaling $13. See Notes 9 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on 10-K for more information on these obligations.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
We had no off-balance sheet arrangements as of December 31, 2016.
Critical Accounting Estimates
In preparing our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, we have to make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the amounts of reported assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Some of these accounting policies require the application of significant judgment by management to select the appropriate assumptions to determine these estimates. By their nature, these judgments are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty; therefore, actual results may differ significantly from estimated results. We base these judgments on our historical experience, advice from experienced consultants, forecasts and other available information, as appropriate. Our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our most critical accounting policies, which reflect significant management estimates and judgment to determine amounts in our audited Consolidated Financial Statements, are as follows:

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Environmental Remediation and Restoration Liabilities
Accruals for environmental matters are recorded when we believe that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and we can reasonably estimate the amount of the liability. We have accrued $57 and $61 at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, for all probable environmental remediation and restoration liabilities, which is our best estimate of these liabilities. Based on currently available information and analysis, we believe that it is reasonably possible that the costs associated with these liabilities may fall within a range of $45 to $94. This estimate of the range of reasonably possible costs is less certain than the estimates that we make to determine our reserves. To establish the upper limit of this range, we used assumptions that are less favorable to Hexion among the range of reasonably possible outcomes, but we did not assume that we would bear full responsibility for all sites to the exclusion of other potentially responsible parties.
Some of our facilities are subject to environmental indemnification agreements, where we are generally indemnified against damages from environmental conditions that occurred or existed before the closing date of our acquisition of the facility, subject to certain limitations. In other cases we have sold facilities subject to an environmental indemnification agreement pursuant to which we retain responsibility for certain environmental conditions that occurred or existed before the closing date of the sale of the facility.
Income Tax Assets and Liabilities and Related Valuation Allowances
At December 31, 2016 and 2015, we had valuation allowances of $651 and $611, respectively, against our deferred income tax assets. At December 31, 2016, we had a $531 valuation allowance against all of our net U.S. federal and state deferred income tax assets, as well as a valuation allowance of $120 against a portion of our net foreign deferred income tax assets, primarily in Germany and the Netherlands. At December 31, 2015, we had a $475 valuation allowance against all of our net U.S. federal and state deferred income tax assets, as well as a valuation allowance of $136 against a portion of our net foreign deferred income tax assets, primarily in Germany and the Netherlands. The valuation allowances require an assessment of both negative and positive evidence, such as operating results during the most recent three-year period. This evidence is given more weight than our expectations of future profitability, which are inherently uncertain.
The Company considered all available evidence, both positive and negative, in assessing the need for a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. The Company evaluated four possible sources of taxable income when assessing the realization of deferred tax assets:
Taxable income in prior carryback years;
Future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences;
Tax planning strategies; and
Future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards.
In 2016, our losses in the U.S. and certain foreign operations in recent periods represented sufficient negative evidence to require a full valuation allowance against the net federal, state, and certain foreign deferred tax assets. We intend to maintain a valuation allowance against the net deferred tax assets until sufficient positive evidence exists to support the realization of such assets.
The accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes is recognized in the financial statements. The guidance prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in its tax return. We also apply the guidance relating to de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.
The calculation of our income tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex domestic and foreign income tax regulations. Unrecognized tax benefits are generated when there are differences between tax positions taken in a tax return and amounts recognized in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Tax benefits are recognized in the Consolidated Financial Statements when it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination. Tax benefits are measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon settlement. To the extent we prevail in matters for which liabilities have been established, or are required to pay amounts in excess of our liabilities, our effective income tax rate in a given period could be materially impacted. An unfavorable income tax settlement may require the use of cash and result in an increase in our effective income tax rate in the year it is resolved. A favorable income tax settlement would be recognized as a reduction in the effective income tax rate in the year of resolution. At December 31, 2016 and 2015, we recorded unrecognized tax benefits and related interest and penalties of $116 and $99, respectively.
 
Pensions
The amounts that we recognize in our financial statements for pension benefit obligations are determined by actuarial valuations. Inherent in these valuations are certain assumptions, the more significant of which are:
The weighted average rate used for discounting the liability;
The weighted average expected long-term rate of return on pension plan assets;
The method used to determine market-related value of pension plan assets;
The weighted average rate of future salary increases; and
The anticipated mortality rate tables.

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The discount rate reflects the rate at which pensions could be effectively settled. When selecting a discount rate, our actuaries provide us with a cash flow model that uses the yields of high-grade corporate bonds with maturities consistent with our anticipated cash flow projections. Our pension and OPEB liabilities and related service and interest cost are calculated using a split-rate interest discounting methodology, whereby expected future cash flows related to these liabilities are discounted using multiple interest rates on a forward curve that correspond to the timing of the expected cash flows.
The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets is determined based on the various plans’ current and projected asset mix. To determine the expected overall long-term rate of return on assets, we take into account the rates on long-term debt investments that are held in the portfolio, as well as expected trends in the equity markets, for plans including equity securities.
The rate of increase in future compensation levels is determined based on salary and wage trends in the chemical and other similar industries, as well as our specific compensation targets.
The mortality tables that are used represent the most commonly used mortality projections for each particular country, and reflect projected mortality improvements.
We believe the current assumptions used to estimate plan obligations and pension expense are appropriate in the current economic environment. However, as economic conditions change, we may change some of our assumptions, which could have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
The following table presents the sensitivity of our projected pension benefit obligation (“PBO”), accumulated benefit obligation (“ABO”), deficit (“Deficit”) and 2017 pension expense to the following changes in key assumptions:
 
Increase / (Decrease) at
 
Increase /
(Decrease)
 
December 31, 2016
 
 
PBO
 
ABO
 
 
2017 Expense
Assumption:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase in discount rate of 0.5%
$
(71
)
 
$
(64
)
 
 
$
(1
)
Decrease in discount rate of 0.5%
62

 
57

 
 
1

Increase in estimated return on assets of 1.0%
N/A

 
N/A

 
 
(6
)
Decrease in estimated return on assets of 1.0%
N/A

 
N/A

 
 
6

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill
 
Our reporting units include epoxy, phenolic specialty resins, oil field, coatings, versatics and forest products. Our reporting units are generally one level below our operating segments for which discrete financial information is available and reviewed by segment management. However, components of an operating segment can be aggregated as one reporting unit if the components have similar economic characteristics. We perform an annual assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of any events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s net assets. If, after assessing all events and circumstances, we determine it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s net assets, we use a probability weighted market and income approach to estimate the fair value of the reporting unit. Our market approach is a comparable analysis technique commonly used in the investment banking and private equity industries based on the EBITDA multiple technique. Under this technique, estimated fair value is the result of a market based EBITDA multiple that is applied to an appropriate historical EBITDA amount, adjusted for the additional fair value that would be assigned by a market participant obtaining control over the reporting unit. Our income approach is a discounted cash flow model. The discounted cash flow model requires management to project revenues, operating expenses, working capital investment, capital spending and cash flows over a multi-year period, as well as determine the weighted average cost of capital to be used as a discount rate. Applying this discount rate to the multi-year projections provides an estimate of fair value for the reporting unit.
If the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit’s net assets, the Company performs an allocation of the reporting unit’s fair value to the reporting unit’s assets and liabilities, using the acquisition method of accounting, to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill. The implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill is then compared with the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill to determine the goodwill impairment loss to be recognized, if any.
As of October 1, 2016 and 2015, the estimated fair value of each of our reporting units was deemed to be substantially in excess of the carrying amount of assets and liabilities assigned to each unit. A 20% decrease in the EBITDA multiple or a 20% increase in the interest rate used to calculate the discounted cash flows would not result in any of our reporting units failing the first step of the goodwill impairment analysis.

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Long-Lived Assets
As events warrant, we evaluate the recoverability of long-lived assets, other than goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangibles, by assessing whether the carrying value can be recovered over their remaining useful lives through the expected future undiscounted operating cash flows of the underlying business. Impairment indicators include, but are not limited to, a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset; a significant adverse change in the manner in which the asset is being used or in its physical condition; a significant adverse change in legal factors or the business climate that could affect the value of a long-lived asset; an accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of a long-lived asset; current period operating or cash flow losses combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses associated with the use of the asset; or a current expectation that it is more likely than not that a long-lived asset will be sold or otherwise disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life. As a result, future decisions to change our manufacturing process, exit certain businesses, reduce excess capacity, temporarily idle facilities and close facilities could result in material impairment charges. Long-lived assets are grouped together at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of cash flows of other groups of long-lived assets. Any impairment loss that may be required is determined by comparing the carrying value of the assets to their estimated fair value. We do not have any indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill.
Variable Interest Entities—Primary Beneficiary
We evaluate each of our variable interest entities on an ongoing basis to determine whether we are the primary beneficiary. Management assesses, on an on-going basis, the nature of our relationship to the variable interest entity, including the amount of control that we exercise over the entity as well as the amount of risk that we bear and rewards we receive in regards to the entity, to determine if we are the primary beneficiary of that variable interest entity. Management judgment is required to assess whether these attributes are significant and whether the amount of control results in the power to direct the activities of the variable interest entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance. We consolidate all variable interest entities for which we have concluded that we are the primary beneficiary.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
See Note 2 in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a detailed description of recently issued accounting pronouncements.
ITEM 7A - QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risk, including changes in currency exchange rates, interest rates and certain commodity prices. To manage the volatility related to these exposures we use various financial instruments, including some derivatives, to help us hedge our foreign currency exchange risk and interest rate risk. We also use raw material purchasing contracts and pricing contracts with our customers to help mitigate commodity price risks. These contracts generally do not contain minimum purchase requirements.
We do not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes. We manage counterparty credit risk by entering into derivative instruments only with financial institutions with investment-grade ratings.
Foreign Exchange Risk
Our international operations accounted for approximately 60% of our sales in both 2016 and 2015. As a result, we have significant exposure to foreign exchange risk on transactions that can potentially be denominated in many foreign currencies. These transactions include foreign currency denominated imports and exports of raw materials and finished goods (both intercompany and third party) and loan repayments. The functional currency of our operating subsidiaries is the related local currency.
We reduce foreign currency cash flow exposure from exchange rate fluctuations where economically feasible by hedging firmly committed foreign currency transactions. Our use of forward contracts is designed to protect our cash flows against unfavorable movements in exchange rates, to the extent of the amount that is under contract. We do not attempt to hedge foreign currency exposure in a manner that would entirely eliminate the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates on net income and cash flow. We do not speculate in foreign currency nor do we hedge the foreign currency translation of our international businesses to the U.S. dollar for purposes of consolidating our financial results, or other foreign currency net asset or liability positions.
We are party to various foreign exchange rate swaps in Brazil in order to reduce the foreign currency risk associated with certain assets and liabilities of our Brazilian subsidiary that are denominated in U.S. dollars. The counter-parties to the foreign exchange rate swap agreements are financial institutions with investment grade ratings. We do not apply hedge accounting to these derivative instruments.
Our foreign exchange risk is also mitigated because we operate in many foreign countries, which reduces the concentration of risk in any one currency. In addition, our foreign operations have limited imports and exports, which reduces the potential impact of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
A 5% strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the primary currencies in which we conduct our non-U.S. operations in 2016 would generate an approximate $102 negative impact to our estimated net sales. Conversely, a 5% weakening of the U.S. dollar against the same currencies would benefit our estimated net sales by an equal amount.

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Table of Contents

Interest Rate Risk
As a result of the refinancing transactions in 2013, we have effectively fixed the interest rate on 97% of our outstanding debt, thus significantly decreasing our exposure to interest rate risk. Assuming the amount of our variable debt remains the same, an increase of 1% in the interest rates on our variable rate debt would increase our 2017 estimated debt service requirements by approximately $1.
 
Following is a summary of our outstanding debt as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 (see Note 7 in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on our debt). The fair value of our publicly held debt is based on the price at which the bonds are traded or quoted at December 31, 2016 and 2015. All other debt fair values are based on other similar financial instruments, or based upon interest rates that are currently available to us for the issuance of debt with similar terms and maturities.
 
2016
 
2015
Year
Debt
Maturities
 
Weighted
Average
Interest
Rate
 
Fair Value
 
Debt
Maturities